.TH GNUNET-PUBLISH "1" "16 Nov 2015" "GNUnet"
gnunet\-publish \- a command line interface for publishing new content into GNUnet
In order to share files with other GNUnet users, the files must first
be made available to GNUnet. GNUnet does not automatically share all
files from a certain directory (however, you can do this with the
gnunet\-auto\-share tool). In fact, even files that are downloaded
are not automatically shared.
In order to start sharing files, the files must be added either using
gnunet\-publish or a graphical interface such as gnunet\-fs\-gtk. The
command line tool gnunet\-publish is more useful if many files are
supposed to be added. gnunet\-publish can automatically publish
batches of files, recursively publish directories, create directories
that can be browsed within GNUnet and publish file lists in a
namespace. When run on a directory, gnunet\-publish will always
recursively publish all of the files in the directory.
gnunet\-publish can automatically extract keywords from the files that
are shared. Users that want to download files from GNUnet use
keywords to search for the appropriate content. You can disable
keyword extraction with the \-D option. You can manually add keywords
using the \-k option. The keywords are case\-sensitive.
In addition to searching for files by keyword, GNUnet allows
organizing files into directories. With directories, the user only
needs to find the directory in order to be able to download any of the
files listed in the directory. Directories can contain pointers to
With gnunet\-publish, it is easy to create new directories
simultaneously when adding the files. Simply pass the name of a
directory instead of a file.
Since keywords can be spammed (any user can add any content under any
keyword), GNUnet supports namespaces. A namespace is a subset of the
searchspace into which only the holder of a certain pseudonym can add
content. Any GNUnet user can create any number of pseudonyms using
\fBgnunet\-pseudonym\fR. Pseudonyms are stored in the user's GNUnet
directory. While pseudonyms are locally identified with an arbitrary
string that the user selects when the pseudonym is created, the
namespace is globally known only under the hash of the public key of
the pseudonym. Since only the owner of the pseudonym can add content
to the namespace, it is impossible for other users to pollute the
namespace. gnunet\-publish automatically publishes the top\-directory
(or the only file if only one file is specified) into the namespace if
a pseudonym is specified.
It is possible to update content in GNUnet if that content was placed
and obtained from a particular namespace. Updates are only possible
for content in namespaces since this is the only way to assure that a
malicious party can not supply counterfeited updates. Note that an
update with GNUnet does not make the old content unavailable, GNUnet
merely allows the publisher to point users to more recent
versions. You can use the \-N option to specify the future identifier
of an update. When using this option, a GNUnet client that finds the
current (\-t) identifier will automatically begin a search for the
update (\-N) identifier. If you later publish an update under the
(\-N) identifier, both results will be given to the user.
You can use automatic meta\-data extraction (based on libextractor) or
the command\-line option \-m to specify meta-data. For the \-m option
you need to use the form keyword\-type:value. For example, use "\-m
os:Linux" to specify that the operating system is Linux. Common
meta\-data types are "author", "title" , "mimetype", "filename",
"language", "subject" and "keywords". A full list can be obtained
from the extract tool using the option \-\-list. The meta\-data is
used to help users in searching for files on the network. The
keywords are case\-sensitive.
GNUnet supports two styles of publishing files on the
network. Publishing a file means that a copy of the file is made in
the local (!) database of the node. Indexing a file means that an
index is added to the local (!) database with symbolic links to the
file itself. The links will use the SHA-512 hash of the entire file
as the filename. Indexing is generally significantly more efficient
and the default choice. However, indexing only works if the indexed
file can be read (using the same absolute path) by gnunet-service-fs.
If this is not the case, indexing will fail (and gnunet\-publish will
automatically revert to publishing instead). Regardless of which
method is used to publish the file, the file will be slowly (depending
on how often it is requested and on how much bandwidth is available)
dispersed into the network. If you publish or index a file and then
leave the network, it will almost always NOT be available anymore.
\fB\-c \fIFILENAME\fR, \fB\-\-config=FILENAME\fR Use alternate config
file (if this option is not specified, the default is
\fB\-D\fR, \fB\-\-disable\-extractor\fR Disable use of GNU
libextractor for finding additional keywords and metadata.
\fB\-d\fR, \fB\-\-disable\-creation\-time\fR Disable use of creation
time timestamp in metadata. Useful to make created directories
deterministic and to avoid leaking information about the time at which
a file was made available.
\fB\-e\fR, \fB\-\-extract\fR Print the list of keywords that will be
used for each file given the current options. Do not perform any
indexing or publishing.
\fB\-h\fR, \fB\-\-help\fR Print a brief help page with all the
\fB\-k \fIKEYWORD\fR, \fB\-\-key=KEYWORD\fR additional key to index
the content with (to add multiple keys, specify multiple times). Each
additional key is case\-sensitive. Can be specified multiple times.
The keyword is only applied to the top\-level file or directory.
\fB\-L \fILOGLEVEL\fR, \fB\-\-loglevel=\fILOGLEVEL\fR Change the
loglevel. Possible values for LOGLEVEL are ERROR, WARNING, INFO and
\fB\-m \fITYPE:VALUE\fR, \fB\-\-meta=\fITYPE:VALUE\fR For the main
file (or directory), set the metadata of the given TYPE to the given
VALUE. Note that this will not add the respective VALUE to the set of
keywords under which the file can be found.
\fB\-n\fR, \fB\-\-noindex\fR Executive summary: You probably don't
Do not index, full publishing. Note that directories, information for
keyword search, namespace search and indexing data are always
published (even without this option). With this option, every block
of the actual files is stored in encrypted form in the block database
of the local peer. While this adds security if the local node is
compromised (the adversary snags your machine), it is significantly
less efficient compared to on\-demand encryption and is definitely not
recommended for large files.
\fB\-N \fIID\fR, \fB\-\-next=\fIID\fR Specifies the next identifier of
a future version of the file to be published under the same pseudonym.
This option is only valid together with the \-P option. This option
can be used to specify what the identifier of an updated version will
look like. Note that specifying \-i and \-N without \-t is not
\fB\-p \fIPRIORITY\fR, \fB\-\-prio=\fIPRIORITY\fR Executive summary:
You probably don't need it.
Set the priority of the published content (default: 365). If the
local database is full, GNUnet will discard the content with the
lowest ranking. Note that ranks change over time depending on
popularity. The default should be high enough to preserve the locally
published content in favor of content that migrates from other peers.
\fB\-P \fINAME\fR, \fB\-\-pseudonym=\fINAME\fR For the top\-level
directory or file, places the file into the namespace identified by
the pseudonym NAME. NAME must be a valid pseudonym managed by
\fB\-r \fILEVEL\fR, \fB\-\-replication=\fILEVEL\fR Set the desired
replication level. If CONTENT_PUSHING is set to YES, GNUnet will push
each block (for the file) LEVEL times to other peers before doing
normal "random" replication of all content. This option can be used
to push some content out into the network harder. Note that pushing
content LEVEL times into the network does not guarantee that there
will actually be LEVEL replicas.
\fB\-s\fR, \fB\-\-simulate-only\fR When this option is used,
gnunet\-publish will not actually publish the file but just simulate
what would be done. This can be used to compute the GNUnet URI for a
file without actually sharing it.
\fB\-t \fIID\fR, \fB\-\-this=\fIID\fR Specifies the identifier under
which the file is to be published under a pseudonym. This option is
only valid together with the\ \-P option.
\fB\-u \fIURI\fR, \fB\-\-uri=\fIURI\fR This option can be used to
specify the URI of a file instead of a filename (this is the only case
where the otherwise mandatory filename argument must be omitted).
Instead of publishing a file or directory and using the corresponding
URI, gnunet\-publish will use this URI and perform the selected
namespace or keyword operations. This can be used to add additional
keywords to a file that has already been shared or to add files to a
namespace for which the URI is known but the content is not locally
\fB\-v\fR, \fB\-\-version\fR Print the version number.
\fB\-V\fR, \fB\-\-verbose\fR Be verbose. Using this option causes
gnunet\-publish to print progress information and at the end the file
identification that can be used to download the file from GNUnet.
.SH SETTING ANONYMITY LEVEL
The \fB\-a\fR option can be used to specify additional anonymity
constraints. If set to 0, GNUnet will publish the file non-anonymously
and in fact sign the advertisement for the file using your peer's
private key. This will allow other users to download the file as fast
as possible, including using non-anonymous methods (DHT, direct
transfer). If you set it to 1 (default), you use the standard
anonymous routing algorithm (which does not explicitly leak your
identity). However, a powerful adversary may still be able to perform
traffic analysis (statistics) to over time infer data about your
identity. You can gain better privacy by specifying a higher level of
anonymity, which increases the amount of cover traffic your own
traffic will get, at the expense of performance. Note that regardless
of the anonymity level you choose, peers that cache content in the
network always use anonymity level 1.
The definition of the ANONYMITY LEVEL is the following. 0 means no
anonymity is required. Otherwise a value of 'v' means that 1 out of v
bytes of "anonymous" traffic can be from the local user, leaving 'v-1'
bytes of cover traffic per byte on the wire. Thus, if GNUnet routes n
bytes of messages from foreign peers (using anonymous routing), it may
originate n/(v-1) bytes of data in the same time\-period. The
time\-period is twice the average delay that GNUnet defers forwarded
The default is 1 and this should be fine for most users. Also notice
that if you choose very large values, you may end up having no
throughput at all, especially if many of your fellow GNUnet\-peers all
do the same.
Index a file COPYING:
# gnunet\-publish COPYING
Publish a file COPYING:
# gnunet\-publish \-n COPYING
Index a file COPYING with the keywords \fBgpl\fR and \fBtest\fR:
# gnunet\-publish \-k gpl \-k test COPYING
Index a file COPYING with description "GNU License", mime-type
"text/plain" and keywords \fBgpl\fR and \fBtest\fR:
# gnunet\-publish \-m "description:GNU License" \-k gpl \-k test \-m
Index the files COPYING and AUTHORS with keyword \fBtest\fR and build
a directory containing the two files. Make the directory itself
available under keyword \fBgnu\fR and disable keyword extraction using
# mkdir gnu mv COPYING AUTHORS gnu/ gnunet\-publish \-k test \-k gnu
# \-D gnu/
Neatly publish an image gallery in \fBkittendir/\fR and its subdirs
with keyword \fBkittens\fR for the directory but no keywords for the
individual files or subdirs (\-n). Force description for all files:
# gnunet\-publish \-n \-m "description:Kitten collection" \-k kittens
\fBSecure publishing with namespaces\fR
Publish file COPYING with pseudonym RIAA-2 (\-P) and with identifier
\fBgpl\fR (\-t) and no updates:
# gnunet\-publish \-P RIAA-2 \-t gpl COPYING
Recursively index /home/ogg and build a matching directory
structure. Publish the top\-level directory into the namespace under
the pseudonym RIAA\-2 (\-P) under identifier 'MUSIC' (\-t) and promise
to provide an update with identifier 'VIDEOS' (\-N):
# gnunet\-publish \-P RIAA-2 \-t MUSIC \-N VIDEOS /home/ogg
Recursively publish (\-n) /var/lib/mysql and build a matching
directory structure, but disable the use of libextractor to extract
keywords (\-n). Print the file identifiers (\-V) that can be used to
retrieve the files. This will store a copy of the MySQL database in
GNUnet but without adding any keywords to search for it. Thus only
people that have been told the secret file identifiers printed with
the \-V option can retrieve the (secret?) files:
# gnunet\-publish \-nV /var/lib/mysql
Create a namespace entry 'root' in namespace MPAA-1 and announce that
the next update will be called 'next':
# gnunet\-publish \-P MPAA-1 \-t root \-N next noise.mp3
Update the previous entry, do not allow any future updates:
# gnunet\-publish \-P MPAA-1 \-t next noise_updated.mp3
GNUnet configuration file
.SH "REPORTING BUGS"
Report bugs to <https://gnunet.org/bugs/> or by sending electronic mail to <gnunet\-email@example.com>
.SH "SEE ALSO"
\fBgnunet\-auto\-share\fP(1), \fBgnunet\-fs\-gtk\fP(1), \fBgnunet\-search\fP(1), \fBgnunet\-download\fP(1), \fBgnunet.conf\fP(5), \fBextract\fP(1), \fBgnunet\-identity\fP(1)
The full documentation for
is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the
programs are properly installed at your site, the command
.B info gnunet
should give you access to the complete handbook,
.B info gnunet-c-tutorial
will give you access to a tutorial for developers.
Depending on your installation, this information is also
\fBgnunet\fP(7) and \fBgnunet-c-tutorial\fP(7).