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{% extends "common/base.j2" %}
{% block body_content %}
<div class="container">

  <h2>{{ _("Tutorial: GNUnet on Debian 9") }}</h2>

  <h3>{{ _("Introduction") }}</h3>

  <p>
    Welcome to the hopefully painless GNUnet tutorial for Debian 9! It provides
    very concrete instructions on how to compile, install and configure a current
    version of GNUnet. The goal is to support newcomers, either end users or
    developers, who want to get in touch with GNUnet for the first time. After
    installing GNUnet we will make sure that out new GNUnet installation is working
    correctly.
  </p>

  <p>
    <b>Attention: If you came across the official gnunet package for Debian 9,
      ignore it! It is ancient and not compatible with current GNUnet
      installations.</b>
  </p>

  <p>
    Now let's start!
  </p>

  <h3>{{ _("Requirements") }}</h3>

  <p>
    First let's install the following Debian 9 packages to use GNUnet
    painlessly. Optional dependencies are listed in Appendix A. They are required
    for some experimental GNUnet features.
  </p>

  <code>
      $ sudo apt install git libtool autoconf autopoint \<br>
      build-essential libgcrypt-dev libidn11-dev zlib1g-dev \<br>
      libunistring-dev libglpk-dev miniupnpc libextractor-dev \<br>
      libjansson-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev gnutls-bin libsqlite3-dev \<br>
      openssl libnss3-tools libopus-dev libpulse-dev libogg-dev
  </code>

  <h3>{{ _("Make an installation directory") }}</h3>

  <p>
    Next we create a directory in our home directory where we store
    the source code later. We should keep this directory after
    installation because it contains Makefiles that can be used for
    uninstalling GNUnet again (see chapter *Uninstall GNUnet and its
    dependencies*).
  </p>

  <code>
    $ mkdir ~/gnunet_installation
  </code>

  <h3>{{ _("Get the source code") }}</h3>

  <p>
    We download the GNUnet source code using git. On Debian 9 we need the
    sources of another library (libmicrohttpd).
  </p>

  <p>
    <b>Attention: The official libmicrohttpd package for Debian 9 is too old, we need
      at least version 0.9.52.</b>
  </p>

  <code>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation<br>
    $ git clone --depth 1 https://gnunet.org/git/gnunet.git<br>
    $ git clone --depth 1 https://gnunet.org/git/gnunet-gtk.git<br>
    $ git clone --depth 1 https://gnunet.org/git/libmicrohttpd.git
  </code>

  <h3>{{ _("Compile and Install") }}</h3>


  <p>
    Before we can compile GNUnet on Debian 9, we compile and install libmicrohttpd.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/libmicrohttpd<br>
    $ autoreconf -fi<br>
    $ sudo apt install libgnutls28-dev<br>
    $ ./configure --disable-doc --prefix=/opt/libmicrohttpd<br>
    $ make -j$(nproc || echo -n 1)<br>
    $ sudo make install<br>
  </code>

  <p>
    Installing GNUnet is not hard. We have two options:
    installing a *production version* and installing a *development version*. If
    you want to start writing GNUnet applications or join the GNUnet development
    choose the development version (it will print more debug output and contains
    debug symbols that can be displayed with a debugger). Otherwise choose the
    production version.
  </p>
  
  <h4>{{ _("Option 1: GNUnet for production / usage") }}</h4>

  <code>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/gnunet<br>
    $ ./bootstrap<br>
    $ ./configure --prefix=$GNUNET_PREFIX --disable-documentation --with-microhttpd=/opt/libmicrohttpd<br>
    $ sudo addgroup gnunetdns<br>
    $ sudo adduser --system --group --disabled-login --home /var/lib/gnunet gnunet<br>
    $ make -j$(nproc || echo -n 1)<br>
    $ sudo make install
  </code>

  <h4>{{ _("Option 2: GNUnet for development") }}</h4>

  <code>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/gnunet<br>
    $ ./bootstrap<br>
    $ export GNUNET_PREFIX=/usr<br>
    $ export CFLAGS="-g -Wall -O0"<br>
    $ ./configure --prefix=$GNUNET_PREFIX --disable-documentation --enable-logging=verbose --with-microhttpd=/opt/libmicrohttpd<br>
    $ make -j$(nproc || echo -n 1)<br>
    $ sudo make install
  </code>

  <h4>{{ _("Option 3: gnunet-gtk") }}</h4>
  <p>
    Installing the Gtk+-based graphical user
    interface can be done on top of either the production or development installation.
  </p>
  <code>
    $ sudo apt install libgtk-3-dev libgladeui-dev libunique-dev libqrencode-dev
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/gnunet-gtk<br>
    $ ./bootstrap<br>
    $ export GNUNET_PREFIX=/usr<br>
    $ export CFLAGS="-g -Wall -O0"<br>
    $ ./configure --prefix=$GNUNET_PREFIX --with-gnunet=$GNUNET_PREFIX<br>
    $ make -j$(nproc || echo -n 1)<br>
    $ sudo make install
  </code>

<!--
  <h4>{{ _("Install GNUnet plugin for name resolution") }}</h4>
      <p>
	So now it gets a bit nasty. It's not so bad. All we have to do
	is copy a file and edit another one. The file we need to copy
	is GNUnet's plugin for the Name Service Switch (NSS) in unix
	systems. Different unixes expect it in different locations and
	GNUnet's build system does not try to guess. On Debian 9 we
	have to do
	<code>
	  $ sudo cp /usr/lib/gnunet/nss/libnss_gns.so.2 /lib/$(uname -m)-linux-gnu/
	</code>
      </p>

  <p>
    The next step is activating the GNUnet plugin we just copied
    in the NSS config. It is located in `/etc/nsswitch.conf`. It should
    contain a line starting with "hosts" similar to this (at least "files"
    and "dns" should be there):
  </p>

  <p>
    <code>
      $ cat /etc/nsswitch.conf<br>
      hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns
    </code>
  </p>

  <p>
    <b>Attention: Once we modified `/etc/nsswitch.conf` DNS resolution will only
      be possible as long as is GNUnet is running. We can leave the next step out,
      but then we will not be able to use GNUnet's name resolution in external
      applications.</b>
  </p>

  <p>We save a copy of the original file and then modify the line using sed:</p>

  <p>
    <code>
      $ sudo cp /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf.original<br>
      $ sudo sed -i -E 's/^(hosts:.*) dns/\1 gns [NOTFOUND=return] dns/' /etc/nsswitch.conf
    </code>
  </p>

  <p>Now in the line starting with "hosts" should contain an entry "gns [NOTFOUND=return]" before the "dns" entry like this:</p>

  <p>
    <code>
      hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] gns [NOTFOUND=return] dns
    </code>
  </p>

  <p>That's it. It wasn't that nasty, was it?</p>
-->

  <h3>{{ _("Configuration") }}</h3>

  <p>
    Congratulations! GNUnet is now installed! Before we start it we
    need to create a configuration file. By default GNUnet looks in
    our home directory for the file `~/.config/gnunet.conf`. We can
    start with an empty file for now:
  </p>

  <code>
    $ touch ~/.config/gnunet.conf
  </code>

  <p>
    It's reccomended that you increase your bandwidth restrictions
    from the acutely low defaults. The example below sets the WAN
    and LAN limits to the value "unlimited".
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-config -s ats -o WAN_QUOTA_IN -V unlimited<br />
    $ gnunet-config -s ats -o WAN_QUOTA_OUT -V unlimited<br /> 
    $ gnunet-config -s ats -o LAN_QUOTA_IN -V unlimited<br />
    $ gnunet-config -s ats -o LAN_QUOTA_OUT -V unlimited<br /> 
  </code>

  <p>
    Now we can start it with the command line tool
    `gnunet-arm` (Automatic Restart Manager).
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-arm -s
  </code>

  <p>
    It starts the default GNUnet services. We can list them with the
    `-I` option:
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-arm -I<br>
    Running services:<br>
    ats (gnunet-service-ats)<br>
    revocation (gnunet-service-revocation)<br>
    set (gnunet-service-set)<br>
    nat (gnunet-service-nat)<br>
    transport (gnunet-service-transport)<br>
    peerstore (gnunet-service-peerstore)<br>
    hostlist (gnunet-daemon-hostlist)<br>
    identity (gnunet-service-identity)<br>
    namecache (gnunet-service-namecache)<br>
    peerinfo (gnunet-service-peerinfo)<br>
    datastore (gnunet-service-datastore)<br>
    zonemaster (gnunet-service-zonemaster)<br>
    zonemaster-monitor (gnunet-service-zonemaster-monitor)<br>
    nse (gnunet-service-nse)<br>
    cadet (gnunet-service-cadet)<br>
    dht (gnunet-service-dht)<br>
    core (gnunet-service-core)<br>
    gns (gnunet-service-gns)<br>
    statistics (gnunet-service-statistics)<br>
    topology (gnunet-daemon-topology)<br>
    fs (gnunet-service-fs)<br>
    namestore (gnunet-service-namestore)<br>
    vpn (gnunet-service-vpn)
  </code>

  <p>
    For stopping GNUnet again we can use the `-e` option.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-arm -e
  </code>


  <h3>{{ _("Make sure it works") }}</h3>

  <p>
    Let's try out some of GNUnet's use cases. Some should be done
    before others:
  </p>

  <ul>
    <li>filesharing</li>
    <li>A simple chat using CADET</li>
    <li>Name resolution using GNS on the command line</li>
    <li>Name resolution using GNS with a browser (do it on the command line first)</li>
    <li>Serving a website using VPN (do name resolution with a browser first)</li>
  </ul>

  <h4>{{ _("filesharing") }}</h4>

  <p>
    Let's publish a file in the GNUnet filesharing network. We use the keywords
    ("commons" and "state") so other people will be able to search for the file.
  </p>

  <p>
    We can choose any file and describe it with meaningful keywords (using the
    `-k` command line option).
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-publish -k commons -k state ostrom.pdf<br>
    Publishing `/home/myself/ostrom.pdf' done.<br>
    URI is `gnunet://fs/chk/M57SXDJ72EWS25CT6307KKJ8K0GCNSPTAZ649NA1NS10MJB4A1GZ9EN4Y02KST9VA5BHE8B335RPXQVBWVZ587Y83WQ7J3DHMBX30Q8.DHNGBN4CB2DBX1QRZ1R0B1Q18WTEAK4R94S9D57C9JMJJ3H7SSQDCV4D1218C4S2VP085AMQQSMG18FCP6NQMZQZJ91XR5NBX7YF0V0.42197237'.
  </code>


  <p>Finding the file by keyword works with `gnunet-search`.</p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-search commons<br>
    #1:<br>
    gnunet-download -o "ostrom.pdf" gnunet://fs/chk/M57SXDJ72EWS25CT6307KKJ8K0GCNSPTAZ649NA1NS10MJB4A1GZ9EN4Y02KST9VA5BHE8B335RPXQVBWVZ587Y83WQ7J3DHMBX30Q8.DHNGBN4CB2DBX1QRZ1R0B1Q18WTEAK4R94S9D57C9JMJJ3H7SSQDCV4D1218C4S2VP085AMQQSMG18FCP6NQMZQZJ91XR5NBX7YF0V0.42197237
  </code>

  <p>
    It gives us the command line call to download the file (and store it as
    ostrom.pdf)!
  </p>

  <h4>{{ _("CADET (and Chat)") }}</h4>

  <p>
    We can use the `gnunet-cadet` command line tool to open a port and from
    another machine connect to this port and chat or transfer data. First we need
    our *peer ID* of the GNUnet peer opening the port.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-peerinfo -s<br>
    I am peer `P4T5GHS1PCZ06R82D3KW8Z8J1113BQZWAWGYHTZ8G1ZXMWXQGAVG'.
  </code>


  <p>
    Now we open the port (it can be any string!):
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-cadet -o my-secret-port
  </code>

  <p>
    On the other machine we can connect using the peer ID and the port
    and start chatting!
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-cadet P4T5GHS1PCZ06R82D3KW8Z8J1113BQZWAWGYHTZ8G1ZXMWXQGAVG my-secret-port
  </code>

  <h4>{{ _("Name resolution using GNS on the command line") }}</h4>

  <p>
    GNS is the GNU name service, a fully decentralized alternatice to
    DNS. We'll publish an IP address in a GNS record try to resolve it
    on the command line. First we need an identity which is the
    equivalent to a zone in DNS. We'll call it "myself" and create it
    using the `gnunet-identity` command line tool. Instead of "myself"
    you can surely use your nick or any other name.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-identity -C myself
  </code>

  <p>
    We can check if it worked using the same tool. We expect the name
    of our identity and the corresponding public key to be
    displayed.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-identity -d<br>
    myself - HWTYD3P5D77JVFNVMZ1M5T10V4SZYNMY3PCGQCSVENKD6ZCRKPMG
  </code>

  <p>
    Now we add a public `A` record to our zone. It has the name "ccc", a value
    of "195.54.164.39" and it expires after one day.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-namestore -z myself -a -e "1 d" -p -t A -n ccc -V 195.54.164.39
  </code>

  <p>
    Now we can query that record using the command line tool `gnunet-gns`.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-gns -t A -u ccc.myself<br>
    ccc.myself:<br>
    Got `A' record: 195.54.164.39
  </code>

  <p>
    So it worked! But only resolving our own records is boring. So we
    can give our identity (the public key of it to be precise) to
    someone else so they can try to resolve our records, too. The
    other person (Bob) has to add it to his namestore like this:
  <p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-namestore -z myself -a -e never -p -t PKEY -n alice -V HWTYD3P5D77JVFNVMZ1M5T10V4SZYNMY3PCGQCSVENKD6ZCRKPMG
  </code>

  <p>
    Our identity in Bobs namestore is a public record (-p) and never
    expires (-e never). Now Bob (let's assume he has called his identity
    myself, too) should be able to resolve our "ccc" record, too!
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-gns -t A -u ccc.alice.myself<br>
    ccc.alice.myself:<br>
    Got `A' record: 195.54.164.39
  </code>

  <p>
    It can continue like this. A friend of Bob would be able to
    resolve our records too because Bob published our identity in a
    public record. Bobs friend would simply use "ccc.alice.bob.myself"
    to resolve our "ccc" record.
  </p>

  
  <h4>{{ _("Name resolution using GNS with a browser") }}</h4>

  <p>
    In the previous use case "Name resolution using GNS on the
    command line" we got an idea about what GNS is about, but now
    let's use it with a browser, to make it actually useful. Currently
    Firefox and Chromium are known to work.
  </p>

  <p>
    Many websites enforce HTTPS and thus provide certificates for
    their hostnames (and not our GNS names). Browsers don't like wrong
    hostnames in certificates and will present error messages. So
    GNUnet has to trick them by generating own certificates for our
    GNS names. This means we need to create our own certificate
    authority and tell our browser about it. Luckily there's a script
    for it:
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-gns-proxy-setup-ca 
  </code>

  <p>
    After executing this script the Browser has to be restarted.
  </p>

  <p>
    GNUnet provides a proxy service (gnunet-gns-proxy) that the
    browser can send DNS and HTTP traffic to. It will try to resolve
    names with GNS first and forward the rest of the DNS traffic to
    the system's DNS resolver. It will also take care of the HTTP
    traffic, so the browser gets valid certificates and the web server
    will not be confused by our GNS hostnames. Our GNS namestore
    doesn't know about any DNS hostnames yet, so we have to store
    them, too. For our "ccc" A record, we have to store a LEHO (legacy
    hostname) record, too. It must contain the website's original DNS
    hostname:
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-namestore -z myself -a -e "1 d" -p -t LEHO -n ccc -V www.ccc.de
  </code>

  <p>
    Now let's start gnunet-gns-proxy.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ /usr/lib/gnunet/libexec/gnunet-gns-proxy
  </code>

  <p>
    Our browser has to be configured so it uses our proxy. In Firefox
    we have to set these options under "about:config":
  </p>

  <code>
    network.proxy.socks:            localhost<br>
    network.proxy.socks_port:       7777<br>
    network.proxy.socks_remote_dns  true<br>
    network.proxy.type:             1
  </code>

  <p>
    To tell Chromium to use the proxy, it has to be started with the
    "--proxy-server" command line option:
  </p>

  <code>
    $ chromium --proxy-server="socks5://127.0.0.1:7777"
  </code>

  <p>
    Now we should be able to resolve our GNS names in the browser! We
    just have to type "https://ccc.myself" into the address bar. If
    our friend Bob prepared his system, too, he can resolve our record
    by typing "ccc.alice.myself".
  </p>


  <h4>{{ _("VPN") }}</h4>

  <p>
    TBD
  </p>

  <h3>{{ _("Uninstall GNUnet and its dependencies") }}</h3>

  <code>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/gnunet<br>
    $ sudo make uninstall<br>
    $ cd ~/gnunet_installation/libmicrohttpd<br>
    $ sudo make uninstall<br>
    $ sudo apt remove git libtool autoconf autopoint build-essential libgcrypt-dev libidn11-dev zlib1g-dev libunistring-dev libglpk-dev miniupnpc libextractor-dev libjansson-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libsqlite3-dev<br>
    $ sudo apt autoremove<br>
    $ sudo userdel -r gnunet<br>
    $ sudo groupdel gnunet<br>
    $ sudo groupdel gnunetdns<br>
    $ sudo mv /etc/nsswitch.conf.original /etc/nsswitch.conf<br>
    $ sudo rm /lib/$(uname -m)-linux-gnu/libnss_gns.so.2
  </code>

  <h3>{{ _("Appendix A: Optional GNUnet features") }}</h3>

  <p>
    TBD
  </p>

  <h3>{{ _("Troubleshooting") }}</h3>

  <h4>{{ _("You can't reach other people's nodes") }}</h4>

  <p>
    Should our computer not have reached the open GNUnet network automatically,
    we can manually instruct our node how to reach the nodes of our friends. This
    works by exchanging HELLO strings. This is how we get a hello string for our
    computer.
  </p>

  <code>
    $ gnunet-peerinfo -gn
  </code>

  <p>
    We can now pass this string to our friends "out of band" (using
    whatever existing chat or messaging technology). If the string
    contains some private IP networks we don't want to share, we can
    carefully edit them out.
  </p>

  <p>
    Once we receive such strings from our friends, we can add them
    like this:
  </p>

  <code>
    gnunet-peerinfo -p <string>
  </code>

  
  <p>
    Now our GNUnet nodes can attempt reaching each other directly. This may
    still fail due to NAT traversal issues.
  </p>


<!--
  <h4>{{ _("OMG you guys broke my internet") }}</h4>

  <p>
    We can replace `/etc/nsswitch.conf` with the backup we made earlier
    (`/etc/nsswitch.conf.original`). Now DNS resolution should work again without a
    running GNUnet.
  </p>

    <code>
      $ cp /etc/nsswitch.conf.original /etc/nsswitch.conf
    </code>
-->

</div>
{% endblock body_content %}