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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en" class="Internet-Draft">
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta content="Common,Latin" name="scripts">
<meta content="initial-scale=1.0" name="viewport">
<title>The GNU Name System Specification</title>
<meta content="Martin Schanzenbach" name="author">
<meta content="Christian Grothoff" name="author">
<meta content="Bernd Fix" name="author">
<meta content="
       This document contains the GNU Name System (GNS) technical specification. 
    " name="description">
<meta content="xml2rfc 2.39.0" name="generator">
<meta content="name systems" name="keyword">
<meta content="draft-schanzen-gns-00" name="ietf.draft">
<link href="draft-schanzen-gns.xml" rel="alternate" type="application/rfc+xml">
<link href="#copyright" rel="license">
<style type="text/css">/*

  NOTE: Changes at the bottom of this file overrides some earlier settings.

  Once the style has stabilized and has been adopted as an official RFC style,
  this can be consolidated so that style settings occur only in one place, but
  for now the contents of this file consists first of the initial CSS work as
  provided to the RFC Formatter (xml2rfc) work, followed by itemized and
  commented changes found necssary during the development of the v3
  formatters.

*/

/* fonts */
@import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Noto+Sans'); /* Sans-serif */
@import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Noto+Serif'); /* Serif (print) */
@import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto+Mono'); /* Monospace */

@viewport {
  zoom: 1.0;
  width: extend-to-zoom;
}
@-ms-viewport {
  width: extend-to-zoom;
  zoom: 1.0;
}
/* general and mobile first */
html {
}
body {
  max-width: 90%;
  margin: 1.5em auto;
  color: #222;
  background-color: #fff;
  font-size: 14px;
  font-family: 'Noto Sans', Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
  line-height: 1.6;
  scroll-behavior: smooth;
}
.ears {
  display: none;
}

/* headings */
#title, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
  margin: 1em 0 0.5em;
  font-weight: bold;
  line-height: 1.3;
}
#title {
  clear: both;
  border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
  margin: 0 0 0.5em 0;
  padding: 1em 0 0.5em;
}
.author {
  padding-bottom: 4px;
}
h1 {
  font-size: 26px;
  margin: 1em 0;
}
h2 {
  font-size: 22px;
  margin-top: -20px;  /* provide offset for in-page anchors */
  padding-top: 33px;
}
h3 {
  font-size: 18px;
  margin-top: -36px;  /* provide offset for in-page anchors */
  padding-top: 42px;
}
h4 {
  font-size: 16px;
  margin-top: -36px;  /* provide offset for in-page anchors */
  padding-top: 42px;
}
h5, h6 {
  font-size: 14px;
}
#n-copyright-notice {
  border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
  padding-bottom: 1em;
  margin-bottom: 1em;
}
/* general structure */
p {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0 0 1em 0;
  text-align: left;
}
div, span {
  position: relative;
}
div {
  margin: 0;
}
.alignRight.art-text {
  background-color: #f9f9f9;
  border: 1px solid #eee;
  border-radius: 3px;
  padding: 1em 1em 0;
  margin-bottom: 1.5em;
}
.alignRight.art-text pre {
  padding: 0;
}
.alignRight {
  margin: 1em 0;
}
.alignRight > *:first-child {
  border: none;
  margin: 0;
  float: right;
  clear: both;
}
.alignRight > *:nth-child(2) {
  clear: both;
  display: block;
  border: none;
}
svg {
  display: block;
}
.alignCenter.art-text {
  background-color: #f9f9f9;
  border: 1px solid #eee;
  border-radius: 3px;
  padding: 1em 1em 0;
  margin-bottom: 1.5em;
}
.alignCenter.art-text pre {
  padding: 0;
}
.alignCenter {
  margin: 1em 0;
}
.alignCenter > *:first-child {
  border: none;
  /* this isn't optimal, but it's an existence proof.  PrinceXML doesn't
     support flexbox yet.
  */
  display: table;
  margin: 0 auto;
}

/* lists */
ol, ul {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0 0 1em 2em;
}
ol ol, ul ul, ol ul, ul ol {
  margin-left: 1em;
}
li {
  margin: 0 0 0.25em 0;
}
.ulCompact li {
  margin: 0;
}
ul.empty, .ulEmpty {
  list-style-type: none;
}
ul.empty li, .ulEmpty li {
  margin-top: 0.5em;
}
ul.compact, .ulCompact,
ol.compact, .olCompact {
  line-height: 100%;
  margin: 0 0 0 2em;
}

/* definition lists */
dl {
}
dl > dt {
  float: left;
  margin-right: 1em;
}
/* 
dl.nohang > dt {
  float: none;
}
*/
dl > dd {
  margin-bottom: .8em;
  min-height: 1.3em;
}
dl.compact > dd, .dlCompact > dd {
  margin-bottom: 0em;
}
dl > dd > dl {
  margin-top: 0.5em;
  margin-bottom: 0em;
}

/* links */
a {
  text-decoration: none;
}
a[href] {
  color: #22e; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
}
a[href]:hover {
  background-color: #f2f2f2;
}
figcaption a[href],
a[href].selfRef {
  color: #222;
}
/* XXX probably not this:
a.selfRef:hover {
  background-color: transparent;
  cursor: default;
} */

/* Figures */
tt, code, pre, code {
  background-color: #f9f9f9;
  font-family: 'Roboto Mono', monospace;
}
pre {
  border: 1px solid #eee;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 1em;
}
img {
  max-width: 100%;
}
figure {
  margin: 0;
}
figure blockquote {
  margin: 0.8em 0.4em 0.4em;
}
figcaption {
  font-style: italic;
  margin: 0 0 1em 0;
}
@media screen {
  pre {
    overflow-x: auto;
    max-width: 100%;
    max-width: calc(100% - 22px);
  }
}

/* aside, blockquote */
aside, blockquote {
  margin-left: 0;
  padding: 1.2em 2em;
}
blockquote {
  background-color: #f9f9f9;
  color: #111; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
  border: 1px solid #ddd;
  border-radius: 3px;
  margin: 1em 0;
}
cite {
  display: block;
  text-align: right;
  font-style: italic;
}

/* tables */
table {
  width: 100%;
  margin: 0 0 1em;
  border-collapse: collapse;
  border: 1px solid #eee;
}
th, td {
  text-align: left;
  vertical-align: top;
  padding: 0.5em 0.75em;
}
th {
  text-align: left;
  background-color: #e9e9e9;
}
tr:nth-child(2n+1) > td {
  background-color: #f5f5f5;
}
table caption {
  font-style: italic;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
  text-align: left;
}
table p {
  /* XXX to avoid bottom margin on table row signifiers. If paragraphs should
     be allowed within tables more generally, it would be far better to select on a class. */
  margin: 0;
}

/* pilcrow */
a.pilcrow {
  color: #666; /* Arlen: AHDJ 2019 */
  text-decoration: none;
  visibility: hidden;
  user-select: none;
  -ms-user-select: none;
  -o-user-select:none;
  -moz-user-select: none;
  -khtml-user-select: none;
  -webkit-user-select: none;
  -webkit-touch-callout: none;
}
@media screen {
  aside:hover > a.pilcrow,
  p:hover > a.pilcrow,
  blockquote:hover > a.pilcrow,
  div:hover > a.pilcrow,
  li:hover > a.pilcrow,
  pre:hover > a.pilcrow {
    visibility: visible;
  }
  a.pilcrow:hover {
    background-color: transparent;
  }
}

/* misc */
hr {
  border: 0;
  border-top: 1px solid #eee;
}
.bcp14 {
  font-variant: small-caps;
}

.role {
  font-variant: all-small-caps;
}

/* info block */
#identifiers {
  margin: 0;
  font-size: 0.9em;
}
#identifiers dt {
  width: 3em;
  clear: left;
}
#identifiers dd {
  float: left;
  margin-bottom: 0;
}
#identifiers .authors .author {
  display: inline-block;
  margin-right: 1.5em;
}
#identifiers .authors .org {
  font-style: italic;
}

/* The prepared/rendered info at the very bottom of the page */
.docInfo {
  color: #666; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
  font-size: 0.9em;
  font-style: italic;
  margin-top: 2em;
}
.docInfo .prepared {
  float: left;
}
.docInfo .prepared {
  float: right;
}

/* table of contents */
#toc  {
  padding: 0.75em 0 2em 0;
  margin-bottom: 1em;
}
nav.toc ul {
  margin: 0 0.5em 0 0;
  padding: 0;
  list-style: none;
}
nav.toc li {
  line-height: 1.3em;
  margin: 0.75em 0;
  padding-left: 1.2em;
  text-indent: -1.2em;
}
/* references */
.references dt {
  text-align: right;
  font-weight: bold;
  min-width: 7em;
}
.references dd {
  margin-left: 8em;
  overflow: auto;
}

.refInstance {
  margin-bottom: 1.25em;
}

.references .ascii {
  margin-bottom: 0.25em;
}

/* index */
.index ul {
  margin: 0 0 0 1em;
  padding: 0;
  list-style: none;
}
.index ul ul {
  margin: 0;
}
.index li {
  margin: 0;
  text-indent: -2em;
  padding-left: 2em;
  padding-bottom: 5px;
}
.indexIndex {
  margin: 0.5em 0 1em;
}
.index a {
  font-weight: 700;
}
/* make the index two-column on all but the smallest screens */
@media (min-width: 600px) {
  .index ul {
    -moz-column-count: 2;
    -moz-column-gap: 20px;
  }
  .index ul ul {
    -moz-column-count: 1;
    -moz-column-gap: 0;
  }
}

/* authors */
address.vcard {
  font-style: normal;
  margin: 1em 0;
}

address.vcard .nameRole {
  font-weight: 700;
  margin-left: 0;
}
address.vcard .label {
  font-family: "Noto Sans",Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;
  margin: 0.5em 0;
}
address.vcard .type {
  display: none;
}
.alternative-contact {
  margin: 1.5em 0 1em;
}
hr.addr {
  border-top: 1px dashed;
  margin: 0;
  color: #ddd;
  max-width: calc(100% - 16px);
}

/* temporary notes */
.rfcEditorRemove::before {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0.2em;
  right: 0.2em;
  padding: 0.2em;
  content: "The RFC Editor will remove this note";
  color: #9e2a00; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
  background-color: #ffd; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
}
.rfcEditorRemove {
  position: relative;
  padding-top: 1.8em;
  background-color: #ffd; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
  border-radius: 3px;
}
.cref {
  background-color: #ffd; /* Arlen: WCAG 2019 */
  padding: 2px 4px;
}
.crefSource {
  font-style: italic;
}
/* alternative layout for smaller screens */
@media screen and (max-width: 1023px) {
  body {
    padding-top: 2em;
  }
  #title {
    padding: 1em 0;
  }
  h1 {
    font-size: 24px;
  }
  h2 {
    font-size: 20px;
    margin-top: -18px;  /* provide offset for in-page anchors */
    padding-top: 38px;
  }
  #identifiers dd {
    max-width: 60%;
  }
  #toc {
    position: fixed;
    z-index: 2;
    top: 0;
    right: 0;
    padding: 0;
    margin: 0;
    background-color: inherit;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #ccc;
  }
  #toc h2 {
    margin: -1px 0 0 0;
    padding: 4px 0 4px 6px;
    padding-right: 1em;
    min-width: 190px;
    font-size: 1.1em;
    text-align: right;
    background-color: #444;
    color: white;
    cursor: pointer;
  }
  #toc h2::before { /* css hamburger */
    float: right;
    position: relative;
    width: 1em;
    height: 1px;
    left: -164px;
    margin: 6px 0 0 0;
    background: white none repeat scroll 0 0;
    box-shadow: 0 4px 0 0 white, 0 8px 0 0 white;
    content: "";
  }
  #toc nav {
    display: none;
    padding: 0.5em 1em 1em;
    overflow: auto;
    height: calc(100vh - 48px);
    border-left: 1px solid #ddd;
  }
}

/* alternative layout for wide screens */
@media screen and (min-width: 1024px) {
  body {
    max-width: 724px;
    margin: 42px auto;
    padding-left: 1.5em;
    padding-right: 29em;
  }
  #toc {
    position: fixed;
    top: 42px;
    right: 42px;
    width: 25%;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0 1em;
    z-index: 1;
  }
  #toc h2 {
    border-top: none;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
    font-size: 1em;
    font-weight: normal;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0.25em 1em 1em 0;
  }
  #toc nav {
    display: block;
    height: calc(90vh - 84px);
    bottom: 0;
    padding: 0.5em 0 0;
    overflow: auto;
  }
  img { /* future proofing */
    max-width: 100%;
    height: auto;
  }
}

/* pagination */
@media print {
  body {

    width: 100%;
  }
  p {
    orphans: 3;
    widows: 3;
  }
  #n-copyright-notice {
    border-bottom: none;
  }
  #toc, #n-introduction {
    page-break-before: always;
  }
  #toc {
    border-top: none;
    padding-top: 0;
  }
  figure, pre {
    page-break-inside: avoid;
  }
  figure {
    overflow: scroll;
  }
  h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
    page-break-after: avoid;
  }
  h2+*, h3+*, h4+*, h5+*, h6+* {
    page-break-before: avoid;
  }
  pre {
    white-space: pre-wrap;
    word-wrap: break-word;
    font-size: 10pt;
  }
  table {
    border: 1px solid #ddd;
  }
  td {
    border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
  }
}

/* This is commented out here, as the string-set: doesn't
   pass W3C validation currently */
/*
.ears thead .left {
  string-set: ears-top-left content();
}

.ears thead .center {
  string-set: ears-top-center content();
}

.ears thead .right {
  string-set: ears-top-right content();
}

.ears tfoot .left {
  string-set: ears-bottom-left content();
}

.ears tfoot .center {
  string-set: ears-bottom-center content();
}

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<table class="ears">
<thead><tr>
<td class="left">Internet-Draft</td>
<td class="center">The GNU Name System</td>
<td class="right">November 2019</td>
</tr></thead>
<tfoot><tr>
<td class="left">Schanzenbach, et al.</td>
<td class="center">Expires 13 May 2020</td>
<td class="right">[Page]</td>
</tr></tfoot>
</table>
<div id="external-metadata" class="document-information"></div>
<div id="internal-metadata" class="document-information">
<dl id="identifiers">
<dt class="label-workgroup">Workgroup:</dt>
<dd class="workgroup">Independent Stream</dd>
<dt class="label-internet-draft">Internet-Draft:</dt>
<dd class="internet-draft">draft-schanzen-gns-00</dd>
<dt class="label-published">Published:</dt>
<dd class="published">
<time datetime="2019-11-10" class="published">10 November 2019</time>
    </dd>
<dt class="label-intended-status">Intended Status:</dt>
<dd class="intended-status">Informational</dd>
<dt class="label-expires">Expires:</dt>
<dd class="expires"><time datetime="2020-05-13">13 May 2020</time></dd>
<dt class="label-authors">Authors:</dt>
<dd class="authors">
<div class="author">
      <div class="author-name">M. Schanzenbach</div>
<div class="org">GNUnet e.V.</div>
</div>
<div class="author">
      <div class="author-name">C. Grothoff</div>
<div class="org">Berner Fachhochschule</div>
</div>
<div class="author">
      <div class="author-name">B. Fix</div>
<div class="org">GNUnet e.V.</div>
</div>
</dd>
</dl>
</div>
<h1 id="title">The GNU Name System Specification</h1>
<section id="section-abstract">
      <h2 id="abstract"><a href="#abstract" class="selfRef">Abstract</a></h2>
<p id="section-abstract-1">This document contains the GNU Name System (GNS) technical specification.<a href="#section-abstract-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
<div id="status-of-memo">
<section id="section-boilerplate.1">
        <h2 id="name-status-of-this-memo">
<a href="#name-status-of-this-memo" class="section-name selfRef">Status of This Memo</a>
        </h2>
<p id="section-boilerplate.1-1">
        This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
        provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.<a href="#section-boilerplate.1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-boilerplate.1-2">
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
        Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working
        documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is
        at <span><a href="https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/">https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/</a></span>.<a href="#section-boilerplate.1-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-boilerplate.1-3">
        Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
        and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
        time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
        material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."<a href="#section-boilerplate.1-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-boilerplate.1-4">
        This Internet-Draft will expire on 13 May 2020.<a href="#section-boilerplate.1-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="copyright">
<section id="section-boilerplate.2">
        <h2 id="name-copyright-notice">
<a href="#name-copyright-notice" class="section-name selfRef">Copyright Notice</a>
        </h2>
<p id="section-boilerplate.2-1">
            Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
            document authors. All rights reserved.<a href="#section-boilerplate.2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-boilerplate.2-2">
            This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
            Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
            (<span><a href="https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info">https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info</a></span>) in effect on the date of
            publication of this document. Please review these documents
            carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
            respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this
            document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
            Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
            warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.<a href="#section-boilerplate.2-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="toc">
<section id="section-toc.1">
        <a href="#" onclick="scroll(0,0)" class="toplink">▲</a><h2 id="name-table-of-contents">
<a href="#name-table-of-contents" class="section-name selfRef">Table of Contents</a>
        </h2>
<nav class="toc"><ul class="toc ulEmpty">
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.1">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.1.1"><a href="#section-1" class="xref">1</a>.  <a href="#name-introduction" class="xref">Introduction</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.1.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.2">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.2.1"><a href="#section-2" class="xref">2</a>.  <a href="#name-zones" class="xref">Zones</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.1"><a href="#section-3" class="xref">3</a>.  <a href="#name-resource-records" class="xref">Resource Records</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ul class="toc ulEmpty">
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.1">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.1.1"><a href="#section-3.1" class="xref">3.1</a>.  <a href="#name-record-types" class="xref">Record Types</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.1.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.2">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.2.1"><a href="#section-3.2" class="xref">3.2</a>.  <a href="#name-pkey" class="xref">PKEY</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.3">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.3.1"><a href="#section-3.3" class="xref">3.3</a>.  <a href="#name-gns2dns" class="xref">GNS2DNS</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.3.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.4">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.4.1"><a href="#section-3.4" class="xref">3.4</a>.  <a href="#name-leho" class="xref">LEHO</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.4.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.5">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.5.1"><a href="#section-3.5" class="xref">3.5</a>.  <a href="#name-nick" class="xref">NICK</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.5.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.6">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.6.1"><a href="#section-3.6" class="xref">3.6</a>.  <a href="#name-box" class="xref">BOX</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.6.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.7">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.3.2.7.1"><a href="#section-3.7" class="xref">3.7</a>.  <a href="#name-vpn" class="xref">VPN</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.3.2.7.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.4">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.4.1"><a href="#section-4" class="xref">4</a>.  <a href="#name-publishing-records" class="xref">Publishing Records</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.4.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ul class="toc ulEmpty">
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.1">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.1.1"><a href="#section-4.1" class="xref">4.1</a>.  <a href="#name-key-derivations" class="xref">Key Derivations</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.4.2.1.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.2">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.2.1"><a href="#section-4.2" class="xref">4.2</a>.  <a href="#name-resource-records-block" class="xref">Resource Records Block</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.4.2.2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.3">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.4.2.3.1"><a href="#section-4.3" class="xref">4.3</a>.  <a href="#name-record-data-encryption-and-" class="xref">Record Data Encryption and Decryption</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.4.2.3.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.5">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.5.1"><a href="#section-5" class="xref">5</a>.  <a href="#name-internationalization-and-ch" class="xref">Internationalization and Character Encoding</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.5.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.1"><a href="#section-6" class="xref">6</a>.  <a href="#name-name-resolution" class="xref">Name Resolution</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ul class="toc ulEmpty">
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.1">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.1.1"><a href="#section-6.1" class="xref">6.1</a>.  <a href="#name-recursion" class="xref">Recursion</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.1.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2">
                <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.1"><a href="#section-6.2" class="xref">6.2</a>.  <a href="#name-record-processing" class="xref">Record Processing</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ul class="toc ulEmpty">
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.1">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.1.1"><a href="#section-6.2.1" class="xref">6.2.1</a>.  <a href="#name-pkey-2" class="xref">PKEY</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.1.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.2">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.2.1"><a href="#section-6.2.2" class="xref">6.2.2</a>.  <a href="#name-gns2dns-2" class="xref">GNS2DNS</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.3">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.3.1"><a href="#section-6.2.3" class="xref">6.2.3</a>.  <a href="#name-cname" class="xref">CNAME</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.3.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.4">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.4.1"><a href="#section-6.2.4" class="xref">6.2.4</a>.  <a href="#name-box-2" class="xref">BOX</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.4.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.5">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.5.1"><a href="#section-6.2.5" class="xref">6.2.5</a>.  <a href="#name-vpn-2" class="xref">VPN</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.5.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.6">
                    <p id="section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.6.1"><a href="#section-6.2.6" class="xref">6.2.6</a>.  <a href="#name-nick-2" class="xref">NICK</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.6.2.2.2.6.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.7">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.7.1"><a href="#section-7" class="xref">7</a>.  <a href="#name-zone-revocation" class="xref">Zone Revocation</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.7.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.8">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.8.1"><a href="#section-8" class="xref">8</a>.  <a href="#name-determining-the-root-zone-a" class="xref">Determining the Root Zone and Zone Governance</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.8.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.9">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.9.1"><a href="#section-9" class="xref">9</a>.  <a href="#name-security-considerations" class="xref">Security Considerations</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.9.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.10">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.10.1"><a href="#section-10" class="xref">10</a>. <a href="#name-iana-considerations" class="xref">IANA Considerations</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.10.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.11">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.11.1"><a href="#section-11" class="xref">11</a>. <a href="#name-test-vectors" class="xref">Test Vectors</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.11.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.12">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.12.1"><a href="#section-12" class="xref">12</a>. <a href="#name-normative-references" class="xref">Normative References</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.12.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
<li class="toc ulEmpty" id="section-toc.1-1.13">
            <p id="section-toc.1-1.13.1"><a href="#section-appendix.a" class="xref"></a><a href="#name-authors-addresses" class="xref">Authors' Addresses</a><a href="#section-toc.1-1.13.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</li>
</ul>
</nav>
</section>
</div>
<div id="introduction">
<section id="section-1">
      <h2 id="name-introduction">
<a href="#section-1" class="section-number selfRef">1. </a><a href="#name-introduction" class="section-name selfRef">Introduction</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-1-1">
       The Domain Name System (DNS) is a unique distributed database and a vital
       service for most Internet applications. While DNS is distributed, it
       relies on centralized, trusted registrars to provide globally unique
       names. As the awareness of the central role DNS plays on the Internet
       rises, various institutions are using their power (including legal means)
       to engage in attacks on the DNS, thus threatening the global availability
       and integrity of information on the Internet.<a href="#section-1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-1-2">
       DNS was not designed with security as a goal. This makes it very
       vulnerable, especially to attackers that have the technical capabilities
       of an entire nation state at their disposal.
       This specification describes a censorship-resistant, privacy-preserving
       and decentralized name system: The GNU Name System (GNS). It is designed
       to provide a secure alternative to DNS, especially when censorship or
       manipulation is encountered. GNS can bind names to any kind of
       cryptographically secured token, enabling it to double in some respects as
       even as an alternative to some of today's Public Key Infrastructures, in
       particular X.509 for the Web.<a href="#section-1-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-1-3">
       This document contains the GNU Name System (GNS) technical specification
       of the GNU Name System (GNS), a fully decentralized and censorship-resistant
       name system. GNS provides a privacy-enhancing alternative to the Domain
       Name System (DNS). The design of GNS incorporates the capability to
       integrate and coexist with DNS. GNS is based on the principle of a petname
       system and builds on ideas from the Simple Distributed Security
       Infrastructure (SDSI), addressing a central issue with the decentralized
       mapping of secure identifiers to memorable names: namely the impossibility
       of providing a global, secure and memorable mapping without a trusted
       authority. GNS uses the transitivity in the SDSI design to replace the
       trusted root with secure delegation of authority thus making petnames
       useful to other users while operating under a very strong adversary model.<a href="#section-1-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-1-4">
       This document defines the normative wire format of resource records, resolution processes,
       cryptographic routines and security considerations for use by implementors.<a href="#section-1-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-1-5">
       The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
       NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
       "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described
       in <span>[<a href="#RFC2119" class="xref">RFC2119</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-1-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-1-6"><a href="#section-1-6" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="zones">
<section id="section-2">
      <h2 id="name-zones">
<a href="#section-2" class="section-number selfRef">2. </a><a href="#name-zones" class="section-name selfRef">Zones</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-2-1">
       A zone in GNS is defined by a public/private ECDSA key pair (d,zk),
       where d is the private key and zk the corresponding public key.
       GNS employs the curve parameters of the twisted edwards representation
       of Curve25519 <span>[<a href="#RFC7748" class="xref">RFC7748</a>]</span> (a.k.a. edwards25519)
       with the ECDSA scheme (<span>[<a href="#RFC6979" class="xref">RFC6979</a>]</span>).
       In the following, we use the following naming convention for our
       cryptographic primitives:<a href="#section-2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-2-2">
        <dt id="section-2-2.1">d</dt>
<dd id="section-2-2.2">
         is a 256-bit ECDSA private key.
         In GNS, records are signed using a key derived from "d" as described in
         <a href="#publish" class="xref">Section 4</a>.<a href="#section-2-2.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-2-2.3">p</dt>
<dd id="section-2-2.4">
         is the prime of edwards25519 as defined in <span>[<a href="#RFC7748" class="xref">RFC7748</a>]</span>, i.e.
         2^255 - 19.<a href="#section-2-2.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-2-2.5">B</dt>
<dd id="section-2-2.6">
         is the group generator (X(P),Y(P)) of edwards25519 as defined in
         <span>[<a href="#RFC7748" class="xref">RFC7748</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-2-2.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-2-2.7">L</dt>
<dd id="section-2-2.8">
         is the prime-order subgroup of edwards25519 in <span>[<a href="#RFC7748" class="xref">RFC7748</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-2-2.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-2-2.9">zk</dt>
<dd id="section-2-2.10">
         is the ECDSA public key corresponding to d. It is defined in
         <span>[<a href="#RFC6979" class="xref">RFC6979</a>]</span> as the curve point d*B where B is the group
         generator of the elliptic curve.
         The public key is used to uniquely identify a GNS zone and is referred to
         as the "zone key".<a href="#section-2-2.10" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="rrecords">
<section id="section-3">
      <h2 id="name-resource-records">
<a href="#section-3" class="section-number selfRef">3. </a><a href="#name-resource-records" class="section-name selfRef">Resource Records</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-3-1">
       A GNS implementor MUST provide a mechanism to create and manage resource
       records for local zones. A local zone is established by creating a zone
       key pair. Records may be added to each zone, hence a (local) persistency
       mechanism for resource records and zones must be provided.
       This local zone database is used by the GNS resolver implementation
       and to publish record information.<a href="#section-3-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-3-2">
       A GNS resource record holds the data of a specific record in a zone.
       The resource record format is defined as follows:<a href="#section-3-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_gnsrecord">
<figure id="figure-1">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3-3.1">
<pre>
         0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
         |                   EXPIRATION                  |
         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
         |       DATA SIZE       |          TYPE         |
         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
         |           FLAGS       |        DATA           /
         +-----+-----+-----+-----+                       /
         /                                               /
         /                                               /
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-1" class="selfRef">Figure 1</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3-4">where:<a href="#section-3-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3-5">
        <dt id="section-3-5.1">EXPIRATION</dt>
<dd id="section-3-5.2">
         denotes the absolute 64-bit expiration date of the record.
         In microseconds since midnight (0 hour), January 1, 1970 in network
         byte order.<a href="#section-3-5.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-5.3">DATA SIZE</dt>
<dd id="section-3-5.4">
         denotes the 32-bit size of the DATA field in bytes and in network byte
         order.<a href="#section-3-5.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-5.5">TYPE</dt>
<dd id="section-3-5.6">
         is the 32-bit resource record type. This type can be one of the GNS resource
         records as defined in <a href="#rrecords" class="xref">Section 3</a> or a DNS record
         type as defined in <span>[<a href="#RFC1035" class="xref">RFC1035</a>]</span> or any of the
         complementary standardized DNS resource record types. This value must be
         stored in network byte order. Note that values
         below 2^16 are reserved for allocation via IANA (<span>[<a href="#RFC6895" class="xref">RFC6895</a>]</span>).<a href="#section-3-5.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-5.7">FLAGS</dt>
<dd id="section-3-5.8">
         is a 32-bit resource record flags field (see below).<a href="#section-3-5.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-5.9">DATA</dt>
<dd id="section-3-5.10">
         the variable-length resource record data payload. The contents are defined
         by the
         respective type of the resource record.<a href="#section-3-5.10" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<p id="section-3-6">
       Flags indicate metadata surrounding the resource record. A flag
       value of 0 indicates that all flags are unset. The following
       illustrates the flag distribution in the 32-bit flag value of a
       resource record:<a href="#section-3-6" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_flag">
<figure id="figure-2">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3-7.1">
<pre>
         ... 5       4         3        2        1        0
         ------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
         / ... | SHADOW | EXPREL | SUPPL  | PRIVATE|    /   |
         ------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-2" class="selfRef">Figure 2</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3-8">
       where:<a href="#section-3-8" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3-9">
        <dt id="section-3-9.1">SHADOW</dt>
<dd id="section-3-9.2">
         If this flag is set, this record should be ignored by resolvers unless all (other)
         records of the same record type have expired.  Used to allow zone publishers to
         facilitate good performance when records change by allowing them to put future
         values of records into the DHT. This way, future values can propagate and may be
         cached before the transition becomes active.<a href="#section-3-9.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-9.3">EXPREL</dt>
<dd id="section-3-9.4">
         The expiration time value of the record is a relative time (still in microseconds)
         and not an absolute time. This flag should never be encountered by a resolver
         for records obtained from the DHT, but might be present when a resolver looks up
         private records of a zone hosted locally.<a href="#section-3-9.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-9.5">
         SUPPL
        </dt>
<dd id="section-3-9.6">
         This is a supplemental record. It is provided in addition to the
         other records. This flag indicates that this record is not explicitly
         managed alongside the other records under the respective name but
         may be useful for the application. This flag should only be encountered
         by a resolver for records obtained from the DHT.<a href="#section-3-9.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3-9.7">PRIVATE</dt>
<dd id="section-3-9.8">
         This is a private record of this peer and it should thus not be
         published in the DHT.  Thus, this flag should never be encountered by
         a resolver for records obtained from the DHT.
         Private records should still be considered just like
         regular records when resolving labels in local zones.<a href="#section-3-9.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<div id="gnsrecords_numbers">
<section id="section-3.1">
        <h3 id="name-record-types">
<a href="#section-3.1" class="section-number selfRef">3.1. </a><a href="#name-record-types" class="section-name selfRef">Record Types</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.1-1">
         A registry of GNS Record Types is described in Section 10.  The
         registration policy for this registry is "First Come First Served", as
         described in <span>[<a href="#RFC8126" class="xref">RFC8126</a>]</span>.  When requesting new entries, careful
         consideration of the following criteria is strongly advised:
         FIXME: ausdenken was wir da gerne haetten.<a href="#section-3.1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_pkey">
<section id="section-3.2">
        <h3 id="name-pkey">
<a href="#section-3.2" class="section-number selfRef">3.2. </a><a href="#name-pkey" class="section-name selfRef">PKEY</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.2-1">In GNS, a delegation of a label to a zone is represented through a PKEY
         record. A PKEY resource record contains the public key of the zone to
         delegate to. A PKEY record MUST be the only record under a label. No other
         records are allowed. A PKEY DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_pkeyrecord">
<figure id="figure-3">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.2-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                   PUBLIC KEY                  |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-3" class="selfRef">Figure 3</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.2-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.2-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.2-4">
          <dt id="section-3.2-4.1">PUBLIC KEY</dt>
<dd id="section-3.2-4.2">
           A 256-bit ECDSA zone key.<a href="#section-3.2-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_gns2dns">
<section id="section-3.3">
        <h3 id="name-gns2dns">
<a href="#section-3.3" class="section-number selfRef">3.3. </a><a href="#name-gns2dns" class="section-name selfRef">GNS2DNS</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.3-1">It is possible to delegate a label back into DNS through a GNS2DNS record.
         The resource record contains a DNS name for the resolver to continue with
         in DNS followed by a DNS server. Both names are in the format defined in
         <span>[<a href="#RFC1034" class="xref">RFC1034</a>]</span> for DNS names.
         A GNS2DNS DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.3-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_gns2dnsrecord">
<figure id="figure-4">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.3-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                    DNS NAME                   |
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                 DNS SERVER NAME               |
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----------------------------------------------+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-4" class="selfRef">Figure 4</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.3-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.3-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.3-4">
          <dt id="section-3.3-4.1">DNS NAME</dt>
<dd id="section-3.3-4.2">
           The name to continue with in DNS (0-terminated).<a href="#section-3.3-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.3-4.3">DNS SERVER NAME</dt>
<dd id="section-3.3-4.4">
           The DNS server to use. May be an IPv4/IPv6 address in dotted decimal
           form or a DNS name. It may also be a relative GNS name ending with a
           "+" top-level domain. The value is UTF-8 encoded (also for DNS names)
           and 0-terminated.<a href="#section-3.3-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_leho">
<section id="section-3.4">
        <h3 id="name-leho">
<a href="#section-3.4" class="section-number selfRef">3.4. </a><a href="#name-leho" class="section-name selfRef">LEHO</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.4-1">Legacy hostname records can be used by applications that are expected
         to supply a DNS name on the application layer. The most common use case
         is HTTP virtual hosting, which as-is would not work with GNS names as
         those may not be globally unique.

         A LEHO resource record is expected to be found together in a single
         resource record with an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
         A LEHO DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.4-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_lehorecord">
<figure id="figure-5">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.4-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                 LEGACY HOSTNAME               |
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-5" class="selfRef">Figure 5</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.4-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.4-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.4-4">
          <dt id="section-3.4-4.1">LEGACY HOSTNAME</dt>
<dd id="section-3.4-4.2">
           A UTF-8 string (which is not 0-terminated) representing the legacy hostname.<a href="#section-3.4-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<p id="section-3.4-5">
         NOTE: If an application uses a LEHO value in an HTTP request header
         (e.g. "Host:" header) it must be converted to a punycode representation
         <span>[<a href="#RFC5891" class="xref">RFC5891</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-3.4-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_nick">
<section id="section-3.5">
        <h3 id="name-nick">
<a href="#section-3.5" class="section-number selfRef">3.5. </a><a href="#name-nick" class="section-name selfRef">NICK</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.5-1">
         Nickname records can be used by zone administrators to publish an
         indication on what label this zone prefers to be referred to.
         This is a suggestion to other zones what label to use when creating a
         PKEY (<a href="#gnsrecords_pkey" class="xref">Section 3.2</a>) record containing this zone's
         public zone key.
         This record SHOULD only be stored under the empty label "@" but MAY be
         returned with record sets under any label as a supplemental record.
         <a href="#nick_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.6</a> details how a resolver must process
         supplemental and non-supplemental NICK records.
         A NICK DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.5-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_nickrecord">
<figure id="figure-6">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.5-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  NICKNAME                     |
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-6" class="selfRef">Figure 6</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.5-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.5-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.5-4">
          <dt id="section-3.5-4.1">NICKNAME</dt>
<dd id="section-3.5-4.2">
           A UTF-8 string (which is not 0-terminated) representing the preferred
           label of the zone. This string MUST NOT include a "." character.<a href="#section-3.5-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_box">
<section id="section-3.6">
        <h3 id="name-box">
<a href="#section-3.6" class="section-number selfRef">3.6. </a><a href="#name-box" class="section-name selfRef">BOX</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.6-1">
         In GNS, every "." in a name delegates to another zone, and
         GNS lookups are expected to return all of the required useful
         information in one record set.  This is incompatible with the
         special labels used by DNS for SRV and TLSA records.  Thus, GNS
         defines the BOX record format to box up SRV and TLSA records and
         include them in the record set of the label they are associated
         with.  For example, a
         TLSA record for "_https._tcp.foo.gnu" will be stored in the record set of
         "foo.gnu" as a BOX record with service (SVC) 443 (https) and protocol (PROTO) 6
         (tcp) and record TYPE "TLSA".
         For reference, see also <span>[<a href="#RFC2782" class="xref">RFC2782</a>]</span>.
         A BOX DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.6-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_boxrecord">
<figure id="figure-7">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.6-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |   PROTO   |    SVC    |       TYPE            |
           +-----------+-----------------------------------+
           |                 RECORD DATA                   |
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-7" class="selfRef">Figure 7</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.6-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.6-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.6-4">
          <dt id="section-3.6-4.1">PROTO</dt>
<dd id="section-3.6-4.2">
           the 16-bit protocol number, e.g. 6 for tcp. In network byte order.<a href="#section-3.6-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.6-4.3">SVC</dt>
<dd id="section-3.6-4.4">
           the 16-bit service value of the boxed record, i.e. the port number.
           In network byte order.<a href="#section-3.6-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.6-4.5">TYPE</dt>
<dd id="section-3.6-4.6">
           is the 32-bit record type of the boxed record. In network byte order.<a href="#section-3.6-4.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.6-4.7">RECORD DATA</dt>
<dd id="section-3.6-4.8">
           is a variable length field containing the "DATA" format of TYPE as
           defined for the respective TYPE in DNS.<a href="#section-3.6-4.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gnsrecords_vpn">
<section id="section-3.7">
        <h3 id="name-vpn">
<a href="#section-3.7" class="section-number selfRef">3.7. </a><a href="#name-vpn" class="section-name selfRef">VPN</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-3.7-1">
         A VPN DATA entry has the following format:<a href="#section-3.7-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_vpnrecord">
<figure id="figure-8">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-3.7-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |          HOSTING PEER PUBLIC KEY              |
           |                (256 bits)                     |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----------+-----------------------------------+
           |   PROTO   |    SERVICE  NAME                  |
           +-----------+                                   +
           /                                               /
           /                                               /
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-8" class="selfRef">Figure 8</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-3.7-3">
         where:<a href="#section-3.7-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-3.7-4">
          <dt id="section-3.7-4.1">HOSTING PEER PUBLIC KEY</dt>
<dd id="section-3.7-4.2">
           is a 256-bit EdDSA public key identifying the peer hosting the
           service.<a href="#section-3.7-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.7-4.3">PROTO</dt>
<dd id="section-3.7-4.4">
           the 16-bit protocol number, e.g. 6 for TCP. In network byte order.<a href="#section-3.7-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-3.7-4.5">SERVICE NAME</dt>
<dd id="section-3.7-4.6">
           a shared secret used to identify the service at the hosting peer,
           used to derive the port number requird to connect to the service.
           The service name MUST be a 0-terminated UTF-8 string.<a href="#section-3.7-4.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
</section>
</div>
<div id="publish">
<section id="section-4">
      <h2 id="name-publishing-records">
<a href="#section-4" class="section-number selfRef">4. </a><a href="#name-publishing-records" class="section-name selfRef">Publishing Records</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-4-1">
       GNS resource records are published in a distributed hash table (DHT).
       We assume that a DHT provides two functions: GET(key) and PUT(key,value).
       In GNS, resource records are grouped by their respective labels,
       encrypted and published together in a single resource records block
       (RRBLOCK) in the DHT under a key "q": PUT(q, RRBLOCK).
       The key "q" which is derived from the zone key "zk" and the respective
       label of the contained records.<a href="#section-4-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="blinding">
<section id="section-4.1">
        <h3 id="name-key-derivations">
<a href="#section-4.1" class="section-number selfRef">4.1. </a><a href="#name-key-derivations" class="section-name selfRef">Key Derivations</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-4.1-1">
         Given a label, the DHT key "q" is derived as follows:<a href="#section-4.1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.1-2">
<pre>
         PRK_h := HKDF-Extract ("key-derivation", zk)
         h := HKDF-Expand (PRK_h, label | "gns", 512 / 8)
         d_h := h * d mod L
         zk_h := h mod L * zk
         q := SHA512 (zk_h)
         </pre><a href="#section-4.1-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
<p id="section-4.1-3">
         We use a hash-based key derivation function (HKDF) as defined in
         <span>[<a href="#RFC5869" class="xref">RFC5869</a>]</span>. We use HMAC-SHA512 for the extraction
         phase and HMAC-SHA256 for the expansion phase.<a href="#section-4.1-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-4.1-4">
          <dt id="section-4.1-4.1">PRK_h</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.2">
           is key material retrieved using an HKDF using the string
           "key-derivation" as salt and the public zone key "zk" as initial
           keying material.<a href="#section-4.1-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.3">h</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.4">
           is the 512-bit HKDF expansion result. The expansion info input is a
           concatenation of the label and string "gns".<a href="#section-4.1-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.5">d</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.6">
           is the 256-bit private zone key as defined in <a href="#zones" class="xref">Section 2</a>.<a href="#section-4.1-4.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.7">label</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.8">
           is a UTF-8 string under which the resource records are published.<a href="#section-4.1-4.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.9">d_h</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.10">
           is a 256-bit private key derived from the "d" using the
           keying material "h".<a href="#section-4.1-4.10" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.11">zk_h</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.12">
           is a 256-bit public key derived from the zone key "zk" using the
           keying material "h".<a href="#section-4.1-4.12" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.13">L</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.14">
           is the prime-order subgroup as defined in <a href="#zones" class="xref">Section 2</a>.<a href="#section-4.1-4.14" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.1-4.15">q</dt>
<dd id="section-4.1-4.16">
           Is the 512-bit DHT key under which the resource records block is
           published.
           It is the SHA512 hash over the public key "zk_h" corresponding to the
           derived private key "d_h".<a href="#section-4.1-4.16" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<p id="section-4.1-5">
         We point out that the multiplication of "zk" with "h" is a point multiplication,
         while the multiplication of "d" with "h" is a scalar multiplication.<a href="#section-4.1-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="wire">
<section id="section-4.2">
        <h3 id="name-resource-records-block">
<a href="#section-4.2" class="section-number selfRef">4.2. </a><a href="#name-resource-records-block" class="section-name selfRef">Resource Records Block</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-4.2-1">
         GNS records are grouped by their labels and published as a single
         block in the DHT. The grouped record sets MAY be paired with any
         number of supplemental records. Supplemental records must have the
         supplemental flag set (See <a href="#rrecords" class="xref">Section 3</a>).
         The contained resource records are encrypted using a symmetric
         encryption scheme.
         A GNS implementation must publish RRBLOCKs
         in accordance to the properties and recommendations of the underlying
         DHT. This may include a periodic refresh publication.
         A GNS RRBLOCK has the following format:<a href="#section-4.2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_record_block">
<figure id="figure-9">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.2-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                   SIGNATURE                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  PUBLIC KEY                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |         SIZE          |       PURPOSE         |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                   EXPIRATION                  |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                    BDATA                      /
           /                                               /
           /                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-9" class="selfRef">Figure 9</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-4.2-3">where:<a href="#section-4.2-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-4.2-4">
          <dt id="section-4.2-4.1">SIGNATURE</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.2">
           A 512-bit ECDSA deterministic signature compliant with
           <span>[<a href="#RFC6979" class="xref">RFC6979</a>]</span>. The signature is computed over the data
           following the PUBLIC KEY field.
           The signature is created using the derived private key "d_h" (see
           <a href="#publish" class="xref">Section 4</a>).<a href="#section-4.2-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.2-4.3">PUBLIC KEY</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.4">
           is the 256-bit public key "zk_h" to be used to verify SIGNATURE. The
           wire format of this value is defined in <span>[<a href="#RFC8032" class="xref">RFC8032</a>]</span>,
           Section 5.1.5.<a href="#section-4.2-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.2-4.5">SIZE</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.6">
           A 32-bit value containing the length of the signed data following the
           PUBLIC KEY field in network byte order. This value always includes the
           length of the fields SIZE (4), PURPOSE (4) and EXPIRATION (8) in
           addition to the length of the BDATA.  While a 32-bit value is used,
           implementations MAY refuse to publish blocks beyond a certain
           size significantly below 4 GB. However, a minimum block size of
           62 kilobytes MUST be supported.<a href="#section-4.2-4.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.2-4.7">PURPOSE</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.8">
           A 32-bit signature purpose flag. This field MUST be 15 (in network
           byte order).<a href="#section-4.2-4.8" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.2-4.9">EXPIRATION</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.10">
           Specifies when the RRBLOCK expires and the encrypted block
           SHOULD be removed from the DHT and caches as it is likely stale.
           However, applications MAY continue to use non-expired individual
           records until they expire.  The value MUST be set to the
           expiration time of the resource record contained within this block with the
           smallest expiration time.
           If a records block includes shadow records, then the maximum
           expiration time of all shadow records with matching type and the
           expiration times of the non-shadow records is considered.
           This is a 64-bit absolute date in microseconds since midnight
           (0 hour), January 1, 1970 in network byte order.<a href="#section-4.2-4.10" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.2-4.11">BDATA</dt>
<dd id="section-4.2-4.12">
           The encrypted resource records with a total size of SIZE - 16.<a href="#section-4.2-4.12" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="recordencryption">
<section id="section-4.3">
        <h3 id="name-record-data-encryption-and-">
<a href="#section-4.3" class="section-number selfRef">4.3. </a><a href="#name-record-data-encryption-and-" class="section-name selfRef">Record Data Encryption and Decryption</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-4.3-1">
         A symmetric encryption scheme is used to encrypt the resource records
         set RDATA into the BDATA field of a GNS RRBLOCK.
         The wire format of the RDATA looks as follows:<a href="#section-4.3-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_rdata">
<figure id="figure-10">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.3-2.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |     RR COUNT          |        EXPIRA-        /
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           /         -TION         |       DATA SIZE       |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |         TYPE          |          FLAGS        |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                      DATA                     /
           /                                               /
           /                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                   EXPIRATION                  |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |       DATA SIZE       |          TYPE         |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |           FLAGS       |        DATA           /
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+                       /
           /                       +-----------------------/
           /                       |                       /
           +-----------------------+                       /
           /                     PADDING                   /
           /                                               /
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-10" class="selfRef">Figure 10</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-4.3-3">where:<a href="#section-4.3-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-4.3-4">
          <dt id="section-4.3-4.1">RR COUNT</dt>
<dd id="section-4.3-4.2">
           A 32-bit value containing the number of variable-length resource
           records which are
           following after this field in network byte order.<a href="#section-4.3-4.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.3-4.3">EXPIRATION, DATA SIZE, TYPE, FLAGS and DATA</dt>
<dd id="section-4.3-4.4">
           These fields were defined
           in the resource record format in <a href="#rrecords" class="xref">Section 3</a>.
           There MUST be a total of RR COUNT of these resource records
           present.<a href="#section-4.3-4.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-4.3-4.5">PADDING</dt>
<dd id="section-4.3-4.6">
           The padding MUST contain the value 0 in all octets.
           The padding MUST ensure that the size of the RDATA WITHOUT the RR
           COUNT field is a power of two.
           As a special exception, record sets with (only) a PKEY record type
           are never padded. Note that a record set with a PKEY record MUST NOT
           contain other records.<a href="#section-4.3-4.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<p id="section-4.3-5">
         The symmetric keys and initialization vectors are derived from the
         record label and the zone key "zk". For decryption of the resource
         records block payload, the key material "K" and initialization vector
         "IV" for the symmetric cipher are derived as follows:<a href="#section-4.3-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.3-6">
<pre>
         PRK_k := HKDF-Extract ("gns-aes-ctx-key", zk)
         PRK_iv := HKDF-Extract ("gns-aes-ctx-iv", zk)
         K := HKDF-Expand (PRK_k, label, 512 / 8);
         IV := HKDF-Expand (PRK_iv, label, 256 / 8)
         </pre><a href="#section-4.3-6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
<p id="section-4.3-7">
         HKDF is a hash-based key derivation function as defined in
         <span>[<a href="#RFC5869" class="xref">RFC5869</a>]</span>. Specifically, HMAC-SHA512 is used for the
         extraction phase and HMAC-SHA256 for the expansion phase.
         The output keying material is 64 octets (512 bit) for the symmetric
         keys and 32 octets (256 bit) for the initialization vectors.
         We divide the resulting keying material "K" into a 256-bit AES
         <span>[<a href="#RFC3826" class="xref">RFC3826</a>]</span> key
         and a 256-bit TWOFISH <span>[<a href="#TWOFISH" class="xref">TWOFISH</a>]</span> key:<a href="#section-4.3-7" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_hkdf_keys">
<figure id="figure-11">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.3-8.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                    AES KEY                    |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  TWOFISH KEY                  |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-11" class="selfRef">Figure 11</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-4.3-9">
         Similarly, we divide "IV" into a 128-bit initialization vector
         and a 128-bit initialization vector:<a href="#section-4.3-9" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_hkdf_ivs">
<figure id="figure-12">
          <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.3-10.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                    AES IV                     |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  TWOFISH IV                   |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-12" class="selfRef">Figure 12</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-4.3-11">
         The keys and IVs are used for a CFB128-AES-256 and
         CFB128-TWOFISH-256 chained symmetric cipher. Both ciphers are used in
         Cipher FeedBack (CFB) mode <span>[<a href="#RFC3826" class="xref">RFC3826</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-4.3-11" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-4.3-12">
<pre>
         RDATA := AES(K[0:31], IV[0:15],
                      TWOFISH(K[32:63], IV[16:31], BDATA))
         BDATA := TWOFISH(K[32:63], IV[16:31],
                          AES(K[0:31], IV[0:15], RDATA))
         </pre><a href="#section-4.3-12" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
</section>
</div>
</section>
</div>
<div id="encoding">
<section id="section-5">
      <h2 id="name-internationalization-and-ch">
<a href="#section-5" class="section-number selfRef">5. </a><a href="#name-internationalization-and-ch" class="section-name selfRef">Internationalization and Character Encoding</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-5-1">
       All labels in GNS are encoded in UTF-8 <span>[<a href="#RFC3629" class="xref">RFC3629</a>]</span>.
       This does not include any DNS names found in DNS records, such as CNAME
       records, which are internationalized through the IDNA specifications
       <span>[<a href="#RFC5890" class="xref">RFC5890</a>]</span>.<a href="#section-5-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="resolution">
<section id="section-6">
      <h2 id="name-name-resolution">
<a href="#section-6" class="section-number selfRef">6. </a><a href="#name-name-resolution" class="section-name selfRef">Name Resolution</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-6-1">
       Names in GNS are resolved by recursively querying the DHT record storage.
       In the following, we define how resolution is initiated and each
       iteration in the resolution is processed.<a href="#section-6-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6-2">
       GNS resolution of a name must start in a given starting zone indicated using
       a zone public key.
       Details on how the starting zone may be determined is discussed in
       <a href="#governance" class="xref">Section 8</a>.<a href="#section-6-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6-3">
       When GNS name resolution is requested, a desired record type MAY be
       provided by the client.
       The GNS resolver will use the desired record type to guide
       processing, for example by providing conversion of VPN records to A
       or AAAA records, if that is desired.

       However, filtering of record sets according to the required record
       types MUST still be done by the client after the resource record set
       is retrieved.<a href="#section-6-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="recursion">
<section id="section-6.1">
        <h3 id="name-recursion">
<a href="#section-6.1" class="section-number selfRef">6.1. </a><a href="#name-recursion" class="section-name selfRef">Recursion</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-6.1-1">
           In each step of the recursive name resolution, there is an
           authoritative zone zk and a name to resolve. The name may be empty.
           Initially, the authoritative zone is the start zone. If the name
           is empty, it is interpreted as the apex label "@".<a href="#section-6.1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.1-2">
           From here, the following steps are recursively executed, in order:<a href="#section-6.1-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ol start="1" type="1" class="normal" id="section-6.1-3">
          <li id="section-6.1-3.1">Extract the right-most label from the name to look up.<a href="#section-6.1-3.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-6.1-3.2">Calculate q using the label and zk as defined in
           <a href="#blinding" class="xref">Section 4.1</a>.<a href="#section-6.1-3.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-6.1-3.3">Perform a DHT query GET(q) to retrieve the RRBLOCK.<a href="#section-6.1-3.3" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-6.1-3.4">Verify and process the RRBLOCK and decrypt the BDATA contained
             in it as defined in <a href="#recordencryption" class="xref">Section 4.3</a>.<a href="#section-6.1-3.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
</ol>
<p id="section-6.1-4">
           Upon receiving the RRBLOCK from the DHT, apart from verifying the
           provided signature, the resolver MUST check that the authoritative
           zone key was used to sign the record:
           The derived zone key "h*zk" MUST match the public key provided in
           the RRBLOCK, otherwise the RRBLOCK MUST be ignored and the DHT lookup
           GET(q) MUST continue.<a href="#section-6.1-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="record_processing">
<section id="section-6.2">
        <h3 id="name-record-processing">
<a href="#section-6.2" class="section-number selfRef">6.2. </a><a href="#name-record-processing" class="section-name selfRef">Record Processing</a>
        </h3>
<p id="section-6.2-1">
           Record processing occurs at the end of a single recursion. We assume
           that the RRBLOCK has been cryptographically verified and decrypted.
           At this point, we must first determine if we have received a valid
           record set in the context of the name we are trying to resolve:<a href="#section-6.2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ol start="1" type="1" class="normal" id="section-6.2-2">
          <li id="section-6.2-2.1">
           Case 1:
           If the remainder of the name to resolve is empty and the record set
           does not consist of a PKEY, CNAME or DNS2GNS record, the record set
           is the result and the recursion is concluded.<a href="#section-6.2-2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-6.2-2.2">
     Case 2:
     If the name to be resolved is of the format
     "_SERVICE._PROTO" and the record set contains one or more matching BOX
     records, the records in the BOX records are the result and the recusion
     is concluded (<a href="#box_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.4</a>).<a href="#section-6.2-2.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-6.2-2.3">
           Case 3:
           If the remainder of the name to resolve is not empty and
     does not match the "_SERVICE._PROTO" syntax, then the current record set
           MUST consist of a single PKEY record (<a href="#pkey_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.1</a>),
           a single CNAME record (<a href="#cname_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.3</a>),
           or one or more GNS2DNS records (<a href="#gns2dns_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.2</a>),
           which are processed as described in the respective sections below.
           The record set may include any number of supplemental records.
           Otherwise, resolution fails
           and the resolver MUST return an empty record set.

     Finally, after the recursion terminates, the client preferences
     for the record type SHOULD be considered. If a VPN record is found
     and the client requests an A or AAAA record, the VPN record
     SHOULD be converted (<a href="#vpn_processing" class="xref">Section 6.2.5</a>)
     if possible.<a href="#section-6.2-2.3" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
</ol>
<div id="pkey_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.1">
          <h4 id="name-pkey-2">
<a href="#section-6.2.1" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.1. </a><a href="#name-pkey-2" class="section-name selfRef">PKEY</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.1-1">
             When the resolver encounters a PKEY record and the remainder of
             the name is not empty, resolution continues
             recursively with the remainder of the name in the 
             GNS zone specified in the PKEY record.<a href="#section-6.2.1-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.1-2">
             If the remainder of the name to resolve is empty and we have
             received a record set containing only a single PKEY record, the
             recursion is continued with the PKEY as authoritative zone and
             the empty apex label "@" as remaining name, except in the case
             where the desired record type is PKEY, in which case the PKEY
             record is returned and the resolution is concluded without
             resolving the empty apex label.<a href="#section-6.2.1-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="gns2dns_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.2">
          <h4 id="name-gns2dns-2">
<a href="#section-6.2.2" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.2. </a><a href="#name-gns2dns-2" class="section-name selfRef">GNS2DNS</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.2-1">
             When a resolver encounters one or more GNS2DNS records and the remaining name
             is empty and the desired record type is GNS2DNS, the GNS2DNS
             records are returned.<a href="#section-6.2.2-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.2-2">
             Otherwise, it is expected that the resolver first resolves the
             IP(s) of the specified DNS name server(s). GNS2DNS records MAY
             contain numeric IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, allowing the resolver to
             skip this step.
             The DNS server names may themselves be names in GNS or DNS.
             If the DNS server name ends in ".+", the rest of the name is to be
             interpreted relative to the zone of the GNS2DNS record.
             If the DNS server name ends in ".&lt;Base32(zk)&gt;", the DNS
             server name is to be resolved against the GNS zone zk.<a href="#section-6.2.2-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.2-3">
             Multiple GNS2DNS records may be stored under the same label,
             in which case the resolver MUST try all of them.
             The resolver MAY try them in any order or even in parallel.
             If multiple GNS2DNS records are present, the DNS name MUST be
             identical for all of them, if not the resolution fails and an
             emtpy record set is returned as the record set is invalid.<a href="#section-6.2.2-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.2-4">
             Once the IP addresses of the DNS servers have been determined,
             the DNS name from the GNS2DNS record is appended
             to the remainder of the name to be resolved, and
             resolved by querying the DNS name server(s).  As the DNS servers
             specified are possibly authoritative DNS servers, the GNS resolver MUST
             support recursive resolution and MUST NOT delegate this to the
             authoritative DNS servers.
             The first successful recursive name resolution result
             is returned to the client.
             In addition, the resolver returns the queried DNS name as a
             supplemental LEHO record (<a href="#gnsrecords_leho" class="xref">Section 3.4</a>) with a
             relative expiration time of one hour.<a href="#section-6.2.2-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.2-5">
       GNS resolvers SHOULD offer a configuration
       option to disable DNS processing to avoid information leakage
       and provide a consistent security profile for all name resolutions.
       Such resolvers would return an empty record set upon encountering
       a GNS2DNS record during the recursion. However, if GNS2DNS records
       are encountered in the record set for the apex and a GNS2DNS record
       is expicitly requested by the application, such records MUST
       still be returned, even if DNS support is disabled by the
       GNS resolver configuration.<a href="#section-6.2.2-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="cname_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.3">
          <h4 id="name-cname">
<a href="#section-6.2.3" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.3. </a><a href="#name-cname" class="section-name selfRef">CNAME</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.3-1">
             If a CNAME record is encountered, the canonical name is
             appended to the remaining name, except if the remaining name
             is empty and the desired record type is CNAME, in which case
             the resolution concludes with the CNAME record.
             If the canonical name ends in ".+",
             resolution continues in GNS with the new name in the
             current zone.  Otherwise, the resulting name is resolved via the
             default operating system name resolution process.
             This may in turn again trigger a GNS resolution process depending
             on the system configuration.<a href="#section-6.2.3-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.3-2">
             The recursive DNS resolution process may yield a CNAME as well
             which in turn may either point into the DNS or GNS namespace
             (if it ends in a ".&lt;Base32(zk)&gt;").
             In order to prevent infinite loops, the resolver MUST
             implement loop detections or limit the number of recursive
             resolution steps.
             If the last CNAME was a DNS name, the resolver returns the DNS name
             as a supplemental LEHO record (<a href="#gnsrecords_leho" class="xref">Section 3.4</a>)
             with a relative expiration time of one hour.<a href="#section-6.2.3-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="box_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.4">
          <h4 id="name-box-2">
<a href="#section-6.2.4" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.4. </a><a href="#name-box-2" class="section-name selfRef">BOX</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.4-1">
             When a BOX record is received, a GNS resolver must unbox it if the
             name to be resolved continues with "_SERVICE._PROTO".
             Otherwise, the BOX record is to be left untouched. This way, TLSA
             (and SRV) records do not require a separate network request, and
             TLSA records become inseparable from the corresponding address
             records.<a href="#section-6.2.4-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="vpn_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.5">
          <h4 id="name-vpn-2">
<a href="#section-6.2.5" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.5. </a><a href="#name-vpn-2" class="section-name selfRef">VPN</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.5-1">
       At the end of the recursion,
             if the queried record type is either A or AAAA and the retrieved
             record set contains at least one VPN record, the resolver SHOULD
             open a tunnel and return the IPv4 or IPv6 tunnel address,
             respectively.
             The type of tunnel depends on the contents of the VPN record data.
             The VPN record MUST be returned if the resolver implementation
             does not support setting up a tunnnel.<a href="#section-6.2.5-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="nick_processing">
<section id="section-6.2.6">
          <h4 id="name-nick-2">
<a href="#section-6.2.6" class="section-number selfRef">6.2.6. </a><a href="#name-nick-2" class="section-name selfRef">NICK</a>
          </h4>
<p id="section-6.2.6-1">
             NIICK records are only relevant to the recursive resolver
             if the record set in question is the final result which is to
             be returned to the client. The encountered NICK records may either
             be supplemental (see <a href="#rrecords" class="xref">Section 3</a>) or
             non-supplemental.
             If the NICK record is supplemental, the resolver only returns the
             record set if one of the non-supplemental records matches the
             queried record type.<a href="#section-6.2.6-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-6.2.6-2">
             The differentiation between a supplemental and non-supplemental
             NICK record allows the client to match the record to the
             authoritative zone. Consider the following example:<a href="#section-6.2.6-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-13">
            <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-6.2.6-3.1">
<pre>
           Query: alice.doe (type=A)
           Result:
           A: 1.2.3.4
           NICK: eve
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-13" class="selfRef">Figure 13</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-6.2.6-4">
          In this example, the returned NICK record is non-supplemental.
          For the client, this means that the NICK belongs to the zone
          "alice.doe" and is published under the empty label along with an A
          record. The NICK record should be interpreted as: The zone defined by
          "alice.doe" wants to be referred to as "eve".
          In contrast, consider the following:<a href="#section-6.2.6-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-14">
            <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-6.2.6-5.1">
<pre>
           Query: alice.doe (type=A)
           Result:
           A: 1.2.3.4
           NICK: john (Supplemental)
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-14" class="selfRef">Figure 14</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-6.2.6-6">
       In this case, the NICK record is marked as supplemental. This means that
       the NICK record belongs to the zone "doe" and is published under the
       label "alice" along with an A record. The NICK record should be
       interpreted as: The zone defined by "doe" wants to be referred to as
       "john". This distinction is likely useful for other records published as
       supplemental.<a href="#section-6.2.6-6" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
</section>
</div>
</section>
</div>
<div id="revocation">
<section id="section-7">
      <h2 id="name-zone-revocation">
<a href="#section-7" class="section-number selfRef">7. </a><a href="#name-zone-revocation" class="section-name selfRef">Zone Revocation</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-7-1">
         Whenever a recursive resolver encounters a new GNS zone, it MUST
         check against the local revocation list whether the respective
         zone key has been revoked.  If the zone key was revoked, the
         resolution MUST fail with an empty result set.<a href="#section-7-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-7-2">
         In order to revoke a zone key, a signed revocation object SHOULD be
         published.
         This object MUST be signed using the private zone key.
         The revocation object is flooded in the overlay network. To prevent
         flooding attacks, the revocation message MUST contain a proof-of-work.
         The revocation message including the proof-of-work MAY be calculated
         ahead of time to support timely revocation.<a href="#section-7-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-7-3">
         For all occurences below, "scrypt" is the scrypt Password-based Key
         Derivation Function as defined in <span>[<a href="#RFC7914" class="xref">RFC7914</a>]</span> with the
         following parameters set:<a href="#section-7-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-4">
<pre>
         S := "gnunet-revocation-proof-of-work" /* Salt */
         N := 2
         r := 8 /* Block size */
         p := 2 /* Parallelization parameter */
         </pre><a href="#section-7-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
<p id="section-7-5">
         The following the the basic data "REV" on which the proof-of work is
         calculated:<a href="#section-7-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_revocation">
<figure id="figure-15">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-6.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                     NONCE                     |
           +-----------------------------------------------+
           |                  PUBLIC KEY                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-15" class="selfRef">Figure 15</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-7-7">
         A single pass in the proof-of-work algorithm is defined as follows:<a href="#section-7-7" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ol start="1" type="1" class="normal" id="section-7-8">
        <li id="section-7-8.1">Derive initial key material K from the REV data.<a href="#section-7-8.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-7-8.2">Derive IV material from the key material K.<a href="#section-7-8.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-7-8.3">Encrypt the REV data using K and IV.<a href="#section-7-8.3" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-7-8.4">Derive the proof of work from the encrypted REV and check against
           the proof condition.<a href="#section-7-8.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
</ol>
<p id="section-7-9">
         The first step in the PoW is a call to scrypt with the REV data as
         password parameter to derive the initial key material K:<a href="#section-7-9" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-16">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-10.1">
<pre>
         K := scrypt (P := REV, dkLen := 32)
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-16" class="selfRef">Figure 16</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-7-11">
         where dkLen denotes the intended output length in octets.
         The second step is to derive a 128 bit initialization vector using a
         Hash-based Key Derivation Function as defined in
         (<span>[<a href="#RFC5869" class="xref">RFC5869</a>]</span>).
         Specifically, HMAC-SHA512 is used for the
         extraction phase and HMAC-SHA256 for the expansion phase.<a href="#section-7-11" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-17">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-12.1">
<pre>
           PRK := HKDF-Extract ("gnunet-proof-of-work-iv", K)
           IV := HKDF-Expand (PRK,
                              "gnunet-revocation-proof-of-work",
                              128 / 8);

         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-17" class="selfRef">Figure 17</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-7-13">
         We use the resulting keying material "K" as a 256-bit TWOFISH
         <span>[<a href="#TWOFISH" class="xref">TWOFISH</a>]</span> key and use IV as the corresponding
         initialization vector:<a href="#section-7-13" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-18">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-14.1">
<pre>
           EREV := TWOFISH(K, IV, REV)
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-18" class="selfRef">Figure 18</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-7-15">
         The above EREV data object is again derived using the scrypt algorithm.
         The proof of work is complete, if the following inequality holds for a
         given NONCE:<a href="#section-7-15" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<figure id="figure-19">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-16.1">
<pre>
         scrypt(P := EREV, dkLen := 64) &lt; 2^(39)-1
         
         </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-19" class="selfRef">Figure 19</a></figcaption></figure>
<p id="section-7-17">
         where dkLen again denotes the intended output length in octets.
         The final revocation data object consists of a signature over the
         public of the zone which is revoked, the zone key itself and the just
         calculated proof-of-work.
         The resulting block is then published and disseminated. The concrete
         dissemination and publication methods are out of scope of this document.<a href="#section-7-17" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_revocationdata">
<figure id="figure-20">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-18.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                   SIGNATURE                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  PUBLIC KEY                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                    NONCE                      |
           +-----------------------------------------------+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-20" class="selfRef">Figure 20</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-7-19">where:<a href="#section-7-19" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-7-20">
        <dt id="section-7-20.1">SIGNATURE</dt>
<dd id="section-7-20.2">
           A 512-bit ECDSA deterministic signature compliant with
           <span>[<a href="#RFC6979" class="xref">RFC6979</a>]</span> over the public zone zk of the zone
           which is revoked and corresponds to the key used in the proof-of-work.
           The signature is created using the private zone key "d" (see
           <a href="#zones" class="xref">Section 2</a>).<a href="#section-7-20.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-7-20.3">PUBLIC KEY</dt>
<dd id="section-7-20.4">
           is the 256-bit public key "zk" of the zone which is being revoked and
           the key to be used to verify SIGNATURE. The
           wire format of this value is defined in <span>[<a href="#RFC8032" class="xref">RFC8032</a>]</span>,
           Section 5.1.5.<a href="#section-7-20.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-7-20.5">NONCE</dt>
<dd id="section-7-20.6">
           The nonce calculated as part of the proof-of-work.<a href="#section-7-20.6" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
<p id="section-7-21">
         The signature over the public key covers a 32 bit pseuso header
         conceptually prefixed to the public key. The pseudo header includes
         the key length and signature purpose:<a href="#section-7-21" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_pkeywithpseudo">
<figure id="figure-21">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-7-22.1">
<pre>
           0     8     16    24    32    40    48    56
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |         SIZE (0x24)   |       PURPOSE (0x03)  |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           |                  PUBLIC KEY                   |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-21" class="selfRef">Figure 21</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
<p id="section-7-23">where:<a href="#section-7-23" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<dl class="dlParallel" id="section-7-24">
        <dt id="section-7-24.1">SIZE</dt>
<dd id="section-7-24.2">
           A 32-bit value containing the length of the signed data in bytes
           (36 bytes) in network byte order.<a href="#section-7-24.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
<dt id="section-7-24.3">PURPOSE</dt>
<dd id="section-7-24.4">
           A 32-bit signature purpose flag. This field MUST be 3 (in network
           byte order).<a href="#section-7-24.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</dd>
</dl>
</section>
</div>
<div id="governance">
<section id="section-8">
      <h2 id="name-determining-the-root-zone-a">
<a href="#section-8" class="section-number selfRef">8. </a><a href="#name-determining-the-root-zone-a" class="section-name selfRef">Determining the Root Zone and Zone Governance</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-8-1">
         The resolution of a GNS name must start in a given start zone
         indicated to the resolver using any public zone key.
         The local resolver may have a local start zone configured/hard-coded
         which points to a local or remote start zone key.
         A resolver client may also determine the start zone from the
         suffix of the name given for resolution or using information
   retrieved out of band.
         The governance model of any zone is at the sole discretion
         of the zone owner. However, the choice of start zone(s) is at the sole
         discretion of the local system administrator or user.<a href="#section-8-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-8-2">
         This is an important distinguishing factor from the Domain Name System
         where root zone governance is centralized at the Internet Corporation
         for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
         In DNS terminology, GNS roughly follows the idea of a hyper-hyper
   local root zone deployment, with the difference that it is not
   expected that all deployments use the same local root zone.<a href="#section-8-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-8-3">
         In the following, we give examples how a local client resolver SHOULD
         discover the start zone.  The process given is not exhaustive and
         clients MAY suppliement it with other mechanisms or ignore it if the
   particular application requires a different process.<a href="#section-8-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<p id="section-8-4">
         GNS clients SHOULD first try to interpret the top-level domain of
         a GNS name as a zone key.
         For example. if the top-level domain is a Base32-encoded public zone
         key "zk", the root zone of the resolution process is implicitly given
         by the name:<a href="#section-8-4" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-8-5">
<pre>
         Example name: www.example.&lt;Base32(zk)&gt;
         =&gt; Root zone: zk
         =&gt; Name to resolve from root zone: www.example
         </pre><a href="#section-8-5" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
<p id="section-8-6">
         In GNS, users MAY own and manage their own zones.
         Each local zone SHOULD be associated with a single GNS label,
   but users MAY choose to use longer names consisting of
   multiple labels.
         If the name of a locally managed zone matches the suffix
   of the name to be resolved,
   resolution SHOULD start from the respective local zone:<a href="#section-8-6" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-8-7">
<pre>
         Example name: www.example.gnu
         Local zones:
         fr = (d0,zk0)
         gnu = (d1,zk1)
         com = (d2,zk2)
         ...
         =&gt; Entry zone: zk1
         =&gt; Name to resolve from entry zone: www.example
         </pre><a href="#section-8-7" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
<p id="section-8-8">
         Finally, additional "suffix to zone" mappings MAY be configured.
         Suffix to zone key mappings SHOULD be configurable through a local
         configuration file or database by the user or system administrator.
         The suffix MAY consist of multiple GNS labels concatenated with a
         ".". If multiple suffixes match the name to resolve, the longest
         matching suffix MUST BE used. The suffix length of two results
         cannot be equal, as this would indicate a misconfiguration.
   If both a locally managed zone and a configuration entry exist
   for the same suffix, the locally managed zone MUST have priority.<a href="#section-8-8" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-8-9">
<pre>
         Example name: www.example.gnu
         Local suffix mappings:
         gnu = zk0
         example.gnu = zk1
         example.com = zk2
         ...
         =&gt; Entry zone: zk1
         =&gt; Name to resolve from entry zone: www
         </pre><a href="#section-8-9" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
</section>
</div>
<div id="security">
<section id="section-9">
      <h2 id="name-security-considerations">
<a href="#section-9" class="section-number selfRef">9. </a><a href="#name-security-considerations" class="section-name selfRef">Security Considerations</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-9-1">
         TODO<a href="#section-9-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
</section>
</div>
<div id="iana">
<section id="section-10">
      <h2 id="name-iana-considerations">
<a href="#section-10" class="section-number selfRef">10. </a><a href="#name-iana-considerations" class="section-name selfRef">IANA Considerations</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-10-1">
         IANA is requested to create an "GNU Name System Record Type" registry.
The registry shall record for each entry:<a href="#section-10-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<ul>
<li id="section-10-2.1">Type: The name of the record type (case insensitive ASCII
           string, restricted to alphanumeric characters<a href="#section-10-2.1" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-10-2.2">Number: 32-bit, above 65535<a href="#section-10-2.2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-10-2.3">Contact: The contact information of a person to contact for
           further information<a href="#section-10-2.3" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
<li id="section-10-2.4">References: Optionally, references describing the record type
           (such as an RFC)<a href="#section-10-2.4" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</li>
</ul>
<p id="section-10-3">
         The registration policy for this sub-registry is "First Come First
         Served", as described in <span>[<a href="#RFC8126" class="xref">RFC8126</a>]</span>.
         IANA is requested to populate this registry as follows:<a href="#section-10-3" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div id="figure_rrtypenums">
<figure id="figure-22">
        <div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-10-4.1">
<pre>
           Number   | Type            | Contact | References
           ---------+-----------------+---------+---------
           65536    | PKEY            | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           65537    | NICK            | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           65538    | LEHO            | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           65539    | VPN             | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           65540    | GNS2DNS         | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           65541    | BOX             | N/A     | [This.I-D]
           FIXME We have a lot more?
           </pre>
</div>
<figcaption><a href="#figure-22" class="selfRef">Figure 22</a></figcaption></figure>
</div>
</section>
</div>
<section id="section-11">
      <h2 id="name-test-vectors">
<a href="#section-11" class="section-number selfRef">11. </a><a href="#name-test-vectors" class="section-name selfRef">Test Vectors</a>
      </h2>
<p id="section-11-1">
         The following represents a test vector for a record of type MX with
         a priority of 10 and the mail hostname mail.example.com.<a href="#section-11-1" class="pilcrow">¶</a></p>
<div class="artwork art-text alignLeft" id="section-11-2">
<pre>
         label := "mail"

         d :=
         71199f7b287cc77a
         0d21b5e40a77cb1d
         f89333903b284fe8
         1878bf47f3b39da0

         zk (public zone key) :=
         dff911496d025d7e
         0885c03d19153e99
         4f213f23ea719eca
         17fc32dc410e082e

         h :=
         2af3275a9cf90e54
         f2dbf7930be76fb9
         5e7c80b1416f8ca6
         dc50ce8e1fb759b9
         fedcdcf546c17e9b
         4c4f23632855c053
         6668e9f684f4dc33
         6d656b27392b0fee

         d_h :=
         01fb61f482c17633
         77611c4c2509e0f3
         81b0e7e4405c10bd
         0017c802f7d32e18

         q (query key) :=
         6fce4deddc5ad681
         f4e29a3310767e3b
         8b38bc1b276ce2ba
         9bf1b49df1e120a3
         20ecc9dffb68416f
         11729ad878ad3bdf
         d0b4db2626b620d7
         8e0604e4393c66a3

         AES_KEY :=
         afefd21a087a150d
         6757741a4eda02a5
         65df7ca86ba44b21
         3f8106c0071eaf01

         AES_IV :=
         a808b929bc9fad7a
         686bbe3432bed77a

         TWOFISH_KEY :=
         c9d0089df01d0bf4
         e4c8db4b2ccc7328
         3425e8a811ae59d2
         99e2747285d2a479

         TWOFISH_IV :=
         071be189a9d236f9
         b4a3654bb8c281d4

         RDATA :=
         0000000100059412 RR COUNT | EXPIRA-
         09ddea0f00000014  -TION    | DATA SIZE (20)
         0000000f00000000 TYPE (15=MX) | FLAGS (0)
         000a046d61696c07 Priority (10) |4 | mail | 7
         6578616d706c6503 example | 3
         636f6d0000000000 com | \0 | Followed by
         0000000000000000 24 bytes of padding to 2^6
         0000000000000000
         00000000


         RRBLOCK :=
         055cb070e05fe6de SIGNATURE
         ad694a50e5b4dedd
         b9fdcbdbae004f65
         afc99ba9c5a3bb54
         07e731a34680ee33
         ae0de7bfeda7d2b7
         8c6b854a008b1b54
         10df4f39f5ba9f46____________
         8cb514a56c0eaae0 zk_h
         56745158a63ee4dd
         76853cb9545e326e
         76d7fa920f818291____________
         000000540000000f SIZE (=84) | PURPOSE (=15)
         0005941209dde25b EXPIRATION
         d99d08fa123da096 BDATA
         66c2fb9bf020a85d
         e80818d0a84059a8
         5eee901a66459e5e
         3d1a10b29a5b8354
         1b58636781166b9a
         642920eee8e7a65a
         001fd19a6406a721
         713f0a0d
         </pre><a href="#section-11-2" class="pilcrow">¶</a>
</div>
</section>
<section id="section-12">
      <h2 id="name-normative-references">
<a href="#section-12" class="section-number selfRef">12. </a><a href="#name-normative-references" class="section-name selfRef">Normative References</a>
      </h2>
<dl class="references">
<dt id="RFC1034">[RFC1034]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Mockapetris, P.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Domain names - concepts and facilities"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">STD 13</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 1034</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC1034</span>, <time datetime="1987-11">November 1987</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC1035">[RFC1035]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Mockapetris, P.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Domain names - implementation and specification"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">STD 13</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 1035</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC1035</span>, <time datetime="1987-11">November 1987</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC2782">[RFC2782]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Gulbrandsen, A.</span><span class="refAuthor">, Vixie, P.</span><span class="refAuthor">, and L. Esibov</span>, <span class="refTitle">"A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 2782</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC2782</span>, <time datetime="2000-02">February 2000</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2782">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2782</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC2119">[RFC2119]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Bradner, S.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">BCP 14</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 2119</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC2119</span>, <time datetime="1997-03">March 1997</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC3629">[RFC3629]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Yergeau, F.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">STD 63</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 3629</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC3629</span>, <time datetime="2003-11">November 2003</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC3826">[RFC3826]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Blumenthal, U.</span><span class="refAuthor">, Maino, F.</span><span class="refAuthor">, and K. McCloghrie</span>, <span class="refTitle">"The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorithm in the SNMP User-based Security Model"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 3826</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC3826</span>, <time datetime="2004-06">June 2004</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3826">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3826</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC5869">[RFC5869]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Krawczyk, H.</span><span class="refAuthor"> and P. Eronen</span>, <span class="refTitle">"HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation Function (HKDF)"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 5869</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC5869</span>, <time datetime="2010-05">May 2010</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5869">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5869</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC5890">[RFC5890]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Klensin, J.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 5890</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC5890</span>, <time datetime="2010-08">August 2010</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC5891">[RFC5891]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Klensin, J.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 5891</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC5891</span>, <time datetime="2010-08">August 2010</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5891">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5891</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC6895">[RFC6895]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Eastlake 3rd, D.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">BCP 42</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 6895</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC6895</span>, <time datetime="2013-04">April 2013</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6895">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6895</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC6979">[RFC6979]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Pornin, T.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Deterministic Usage of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 6979</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC6979</span>, <time datetime="2013-08">August 2013</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6979">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6979</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC7748">[RFC7748]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Langley, A.</span><span class="refAuthor">, Hamburg, M.</span><span class="refAuthor">, and S. Turner</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Elliptic Curves for Security"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 7748</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC7748</span>, <time datetime="2016-01">January 2016</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC8032">[RFC8032]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Josefsson, S.</span><span class="refAuthor"> and I. Liusvaara</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 8032</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC8032</span>, <time datetime="2017-01">January 2017</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC8126">[RFC8126]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Cotton, M.</span><span class="refAuthor">, Leiba, B.</span><span class="refAuthor">, and T. Narten</span>, <span class="refTitle">"Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">BCP 26</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 8126</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC8126</span>, <time datetime="2017-06">June 2017</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
<dt id="TWOFISH">[TWOFISH]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Schneier, B.</span>, <span class="refTitle">"The Twofish Encryptions Algorithm: A 128-Bit Block Cipher, 1st Edition"</span>, <time datetime="1999-03">March 1999</time>. </dd>
<dt id="RFC7914">[RFC7914]</dt>
<dd>
<span class="refAuthor">Percival, C.</span><span class="refAuthor"> and S. Josefsson</span>, <span class="refTitle">"The scrypt Password-Based Key Derivation Function"</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">RFC 7914</span>, <span class="seriesInfo">DOI 10.17487/RFC7914</span>, <time datetime="2016-08">August 2016</time>, <span>&lt;<a href="https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7914">https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7914</a>&gt;</span>. </dd>
</dl>
</section>
<div id="authors-addresses">
<section id="section-appendix.a">
      <h2 id="name-authors-addresses">
<a href="#name-authors-addresses" class="section-name selfRef">Authors' Addresses</a>
      </h2>
<address class="vcard">
        <div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="fn nameRole">Martin Schanzenbach</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="org">GNUnet e.V.</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="street-address">Boltzmannstrasse 3</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left">
<span class="postal-code">85748</span> <span class="locality">Garching</span>
</div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="country-name">Germany</span></div>
<div class="email">
<span>Email:</span>
<a href="mailto:schanzen@gnunet.org" class="email">schanzen@gnunet.org</a>
</div>
</address>
<address class="vcard">
        <div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="fn nameRole">Christian Grothoff</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="org">Berner Fachhochschule</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="street-address">Hoeheweg 80</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left">
<span class="postal-code">2501</span> <span class="locality">Biel/Bienne</span>
</div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="country-name">Switzerland</span></div>
<div class="email">
<span>Email:</span>
<a href="mailto:schanzen@gnunet.org" class="email">schanzen@gnunet.org</a>
</div>
</address>
<address class="vcard">
        <div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="fn nameRole">Bernd Fix</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="org">GNUnet e.V.</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="street-address">Boltzmannstrasse 3</span></div>
<div dir="auto" class="left">
<span class="postal-code">85748</span> <span class="locality">Garching</span>
</div>
<div dir="auto" class="left"><span class="country-name">Germany</span></div>
<div class="email">
<span>Email:</span>
<a href="mailto:fix@gnunet.org" class="email">fix@gnunet.org</a>
</div>
</address>
</section>
</div>
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